Structured finance and securitisation: Country Q&A tool

Search the Country Q&A in the Structured Finance and Securitisation global guide by question and jurisdiction.

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Step 3: Scroll down to view answers and check law stated dates for each jurisdiction.

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Market and legal regime

1. Please give a brief overview of the securitisation market in your jurisdiction. In particular:
  • How developed is the market and what notable transactions and new structures have emerged recently?

  • What impact have central bank programmes (if any) had on the securitisation market in your jurisdiction?

  • Is securitisation particularly concentrated in certain industry sectors?

2. Is there a specific legislative regime within which securitisations in your jurisdiction are carried out? In particular:
  • What are the main laws governing securitisations?

  • What is the name of the regulatory authority charged with overseeing securitisation practices and participants in your jurisdiction?


Reasons for doing a securitisation

3. What are the main reasons for doing a securitisation in your jurisdiction? How are the reasons for doing a securitisation in your jurisdiction affected by:
  • Accounting practices in your jurisdiction, such as application of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)?

  • National or supra-national rules concerning capital adequacy

  • Risk retention requirements?

  • Implementation of the Basel III framework in your jurisdiction?


The special purpose vehicle (SPV)

Establishing the SPV

4. How is an SPV established in your jurisdiction? Please explain:
  • What form does the SPV usually take and how is it set up?

  • What is the legal status of the SPV?

  • How is the SPV usually owned?

  • Are there any particular regulatory requirements that apply to the SPVs?

5. Is the SPV usually established in your jurisdiction or offshore? If established offshore, in what jurisdiction(s) are SPVs usually established and why? Are there any particular circumstances when it is advantageous to establish the SPV in your jurisdiction?

Ensuring the SPV is insolvency remote

6. What steps can be taken to make the SPV as insolvency remote as possible in your jurisdiction? In particular:
  • Has the ability to achieve insolvency remoteness been eroded to any extent in recent years?

  • Will the courts in your jurisdiction give effect to limited recourse and non-petition clauses?


Ensuring the SPV is treated separately from the originator

7. Is there a risk that the courts can treat the assets of the SPV as those of the originator if the originator becomes subject to insolvency proceedings? If so, can this be avoided/minimised?

The securities

Issuing the securities

8. What factors will determine whether to issue the SPV's securities publicly or privately?
9. If the securities are publicly issued:
  • Are the securities usually listed on a regulated exchange in your jurisdiction or in another jurisdiction?

  • If in your jurisdiction, please briefly summarise the main documents required to make an application to list debt securities on the main regulated exchange in your jurisdiction. Are there any share capital requirements?

  • If a particular exchange (domestic or foreign) is usually chosen for listing the securities, please briefly summarise the main reasons for this.


Constituting the securities

10. If the trust concept is not recognised in your jurisdiction, what document constitutes the securities issued by the SPV and how are the rights in them held?

Transferring the receivables

Classes of receivables

11. What classes of receivables are usually securitised in your jurisdiction? Please explain any particular reasons (for example, the strength of the origination market) why such receivables are usually securitised and the progress of the market in securitising new classes of receivables.

Transferring the receivables from the originator to the SPV

12. How are receivables usually transferred from the originator to the SPV? Is perfection of the transfer subject to giving notice of sale to the obligor or subject to any other steps?
13. Are there any types of receivables that it is not possible or not practical to securitise in your jurisdiction (for example, future receivables)?
14. How is any security attached to the receivables transferred to the SPV? What are the perfection requirements?

Prohibitions or restrictions on transfer

15. Are there any prohibitions or restrictions on transferring the receivables, for example, in relation to consumer data?

Avoiding the transfer being re-characterised

16. Is there a risk that a transfer of title to the receivables will be re-characterised as a secured loan? If so:
  • Can this risk be avoided or minimised?

  • Are true sale legal opinions typically delivered in your jurisdiction or does it depend on the asset type and/or provenance of the securitised asset?


Ensuring the transfer cannot be unwound if the originator becomes insolvent

17. Can the originator (or a liquidator or other insolvency officer of the originator) unwind the transaction at a later date? If yes, on what grounds can this be done and what is the timescale for doing so? Can this risk be avoided or minimised?

Establishing the applicable law

18. Are choice of law clauses in contracts usually recognised and enforced in your jurisdiction? If yes, is a particular law usually chosen to govern the transaction documents? Are there any circumstances when local law will override a choice of law?

Security and risk

Creating security

19. Please briefly list the main types of security that can be taken over the various assets of the SPV in your jurisdiction, and the requirements to perfect such security.
20. How is the security granted by the SPV held for the investors? If the trust concept is recognised, are there any particular requirements for setting up a trust (for example, the security trustee providing some form of consideration)? Are foreign trusts recognised in your jurisdiction?

Credit enhancement

21. What methods of credit enhancement are commonly used in your jurisdiction? Are there any variations or specific issues that apply to the credit enhancement techniques set out in the Guide?

Risk management and liquidity support

22. What methods of liquidity support are commonly used in your jurisdiction? Are there any variations or specific issues that apply to the provision of liquidity support as set out in the Guide?

Cash flow in the structure

Distribution of funds

23. Please explain any variations to the cash flow index accompanying Diagram 9 of the Guide that apply in your jurisdiction. In particular, will the courts in your jurisdiction give effect to "flip clauses" (that is, clauses that allow for termination payments to swap counterparties who are in default under the swap agreement, to be paid further down the cash flow waterfall than would otherwise have been the case)?

Profit extraction

24. What methods of profit extraction are commonly used in your jurisdiction? Are there any variations or specific issues that apply to the profit extraction techniques set out in the Guide?

The role of the rating agencies

25. What is the sovereign rating of your jurisdiction? What factors impact on this and are there any specific factors in your jurisdiction that affect the rating of the securities issued by the SPV (for example, legal certainty or political issues)? How are such risks usually managed?

Tax issues

26. What tax issues arise in securitisations in your jurisdiction? In particular:
  • What transfer taxes may apply to the transfer of the receivables? Please give the applicable tax rates and explain how transfer taxes are usually dealt with.

  • Is withholding tax payable in certain circumstances? Please give the applicable tax rates and explain how withholding taxes are usually dealt with.

  • Are there any other tax issues that apply to securitisations in your jurisdiction?

  • Does your jurisdiction's government have an inter-governmental agreement in place with the US in relation to FATCA compliance, and will this benefit locally-domiciled SPVs?


Recent developments affecting securitisations

27. Please give brief details of any legal developments in your jurisdiction (arising from case law, statute or otherwise) that have had, or are likely to have, a significant impact on securitisation practices, structures or participants.

Other securitisation structures

28. What other structures, including synthetic securitisations, are sometimes used in your jurisdiction?


29. Please summarise any reform proposals and state whether they are likely to come into force and, if so, when. For example, what structuring trends do you foresee and will they be driven mainly by regulatory changes, risk management, new credit rating methodology, economic necessity, tax or other factors?
30. Has the nature and extent of global, regional and domestic reforms had a positive or negative affect on revitalising securitisation in your jurisdiction?
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