Environment: Country Q&A tool

Search the Country Q&A in the Environment Global Guide by question and jurisdiction.

Step 1: Check the boxes to select the questions and the jurisdictions for comparison.
Step 2: Click the "submit" button.
Step 3: Scroll down to view answers and check law stated dates for each jurisdiction.

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Environmental regulatory framework

1. What are the key pieces of environmental legislation and the regulatory authorities in your jurisdiction?
 

Regulatory enforcement

2. To what extent are environmental requirements enforced by regulators in your jurisdiction?
 

Environmental NGOs

3. To what extent are environmental non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other pressure groups active in your jurisdiction?
 

Environmental permits

4. Is there an integrated permitting regime or are there separate environmental regimes for different types of emissions? Can companies apply for a single environmental permit for all activities on a site or do they have to apply for separate permits?
 
5. What is the framework for the integrated permitting regime?
 

Water pollution

6. What is the regulatory regime for water pollution (whether part of an integrated regime or separate)?
 

Air pollution

7. What is the regulatory regime for air pollution (whether part of an integrated regime or separate)?
 

Climate change, renewable energy and energy efficiency

8. Are there any national targets or legal requirements for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the use of renewable energy (such as wind power) and/or increasing energy efficiency (for example in buildings and appliances)? Is there a national strategy on climate change, renewable energy and/or energy efficiency?
 
9. Is your jurisdiction party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and/or the Kyoto Protocol? How have the requirements under those international agreements been implemented?
 
10. What, if any, emissions/carbon trading schemes operate in your jurisdiction?
 

Environmental impact assessments

11. Are there any requirements to carry out environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for certain types of projects?
 

Waste

12. What is the regulatory regime for waste?
 

Asbestos

13. What is the regulatory regime for asbestos?
 

Contaminated land

14. What is the regulatory regime for contaminated land?
 
15. Who is liable for the clean-up of contaminated land? Can this be excluded?
 
16. Can a lender incur liability for contaminated land and is it common for a lender to incur liability? What steps do lenders commonly take to minimise liability?
 
17. Can an individual bring legal action against a polluter, owner or occupier?
 

Hydraulic fracturing

18. Is fracking being pursued or considered in your jurisdiction? If so, please describe the regulatory framework which applies to manage environmental risks.
 

Environmental liability and asset/share transfers

19. In what circumstances can a buyer inherit pre-acquisition environmental liability in an asset sale/the sale of a company (share sale)?
 
20. In what circumstances can a seller retain environmental liability after an asset sale/a share sale?
 
21. Does a seller have to disclose environmental information to the buyer in an asset sale/a share sale?
 
22. Is environmental due diligence common in an asset sale/a share sale?
 
23. Are environmental warranties and indemnities usually given and what issues do they usually cover in an asset sale/a share sale?
 
24. Are there usually limits on environmental warranties and indemnities?
 

Reporting and auditing

25. Do regulators keep public registers of environmental information? What is the procedure for a third party to search those registers?
 
26. Do companies have to carry out environmental auditing? Do companies have to report information to the regulators and the public about environmental performance?
 
27. Do companies have to report information to the regulators and the public about environmental incidents (such as water pollution and soil contamination)?
 
28. What access powers do environmental regulators have to access a company?
 

Environmental insurance

29. What types of insurance cover are available for environmental damage or liability and what risks are usually covered? How easy is it to obtain environmental insurance and is it common in practice?
 

Environmental tax

30. What are the main environmental taxes in your jurisdiction?
 

Reform

31. What proposals are there for significant reform (changes) of environmental law in your jurisdiction?
 
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