Restructuring and insolvency in Jersey: overview
A Q&A guide to restructuring and insolvency law in Jersey.
The Q&A gives a high level overview of the most common forms of security granted over immovable and movable property; creditors' and shareholders' ranking on a company's insolvency; mechanisms to secure unpaid debts; mandatory set-off of mutual debts on insolvency; state support for distressed businesses; rescue and insolvency procedures; stakeholders' roles; liability for an insolvent company's debts; setting aside an insolvent company's pre-insolvency transactions; carrying on business during insolvency; additional finance; multinational cases; and proposals for reform.
To compare answers across multiple jurisdictions, visit the Restructuring and insolvency Country Q&A tool.
This Q&A is part of the global guide to restructuring and insolvency law. For a full list of jurisdictional Q&As visit www.practicallaw.com/restructure-guide.
Forms of security
Common forms of security and formalities. The form of security granted over immovable property is a hypothec. This is a registered encumbrance which attaches to either a:
Contract lease (that is, a lease of more than nine years registered with the Royal Court of Jersey (Court)).
An undivided share of freehold property or a contract lease owned in common (as opposed to jointly).
A hypothec is attached to either specific property or all the debtor's real property assets at the time of registration.
There are two main types of hypothec:
Hypotheque judiciaire (HJ). This is created by registering an obligation with the Public Registry (see below). The obligation can take the form of a:
judgment debt, including a consensual judgment debt.
The Public Registry (Le Registre Public) is a register, open to public inspection, of, amongst other things, almost all immovable property transactions in Jersey. It was established by Act of the States of Jersey (that is, the Jersey Parliament) in 1602. It is administered by the Judicial Greffe.
Hypotheque conventionnelle simple (HCS). The creation of an HCS usually only occurs in two circumstances:
when a property is sold and part of the purchase price is not paid to the seller but remains outstanding as an encumbrance on the property, representing the debt owed to the seller by the purchaser;
when the terms of borrowing in a real property transaction, with provision for security, are otherwise sworn to before the Court. The terms of borrowing are therefore available for public inspection at the Public Registry, which can make an HCS unattractive for commercial or complex lending.
An HCS is itself immovable property, but an HJ is not.
The formalities for creating a consensual HJ, and an HCS, are as follows:
HJ. An HJ requires:
signature by or on behalf of the debtor or guarantor of a document which acknowledges the amount borrowed or the maximum obligation under a guarantee; and
registration at the Public Registry.
By convention, the document is admitted to the Public Registry on a Friday, between 2.30pm and 4pm. Failure to register the document means that no HJ has been created. Subsequent registration will create the HJ, but priority will be lost if other hypothecs are created in the interim.
HCS. This is created by:
swearing to a contract before the Court which contains the terms of the borrowing and provides for the security; and
registering the contract at the Public Registry. As for an HJ, registration is essential for the creation of an HCS and priority will be lost if another HCS is created before registration.
Effects of non-compliance. An HJ, or HCS, will not be created unless either the document (in the case of an intended HJ) or contract (in the case of an intended HCS) is registered with the Public Registry (see above, Formalities).
Common forms of security and formalities. These are as follows:
Tangible movable property. A pledge is the only form of security that can be taken over tangible movable property.
Ships and aircraft. Ships have a separate register of mortgages. There is now also a Jersey aircraft register launched in November 2015. The Jersey aircraft registry (JAR) allows for the registration of private and corporate aircraft, aircraft engines and aircraft mortgages. It also permits registration of aircraft engine mortgages. The register does not cater for commercial air transport aircraft.
Intangible movable property. Security can be created over intangible movable property (such as shares, units in property unit trusts, and bank accounts) by creating a security interest.
There are two other forms of security/quasi-security over movable property:
Liens. Contractual liens most commonly take the form of:
a banker's lien over property in a lender's possession; and
a lien of a company over its shares for amounts unpaid on that share, as set out in the company's articles of association.
Set-off. Set-off can be used to create quasi-security (see Question 4, Set-off of obligations).
A pledge must be created through physical delivery of the property by the debtor and retention of the property by the creditor. In the event of default by the debtor, the creditor can either retain or sell the asset.
A security interest is created pursuant to a security interest agreement, which must be in accordance with the Security Interests (Jersey) Law 2012 (Security Interests Law).
Under the Security Interests Law, security may be created over specified intangible movable assets (such as shares, bank accounts, securities accounts, other Jersey-situs contract rights), or alternatively, security may be granted over all present and after-acquired intangible movable property.
For a security interest to be valid, the security interest must attach to the collateral, and in order to be valid against third parties and not void against the Viscount or a liquidator and creditors in an insolvency, it must also be perfected.
A security interest attaches to collateral when the following three conditions are satisfied:
Value must have been given in respect of the security agreement.
The grantor of the security interest must have rights in the collateral or the power to grant such rights to the secured party.
One or both of the following are satisfied:
the secured party has possession (in the case of negotiable instruments or negotiable investment securities) or control (in the case of bank accounts, securities and securities accounts) of the collateral; and/or
the security agreement is in writing, signed by the grantor and contains a description of the collateral sufficient to enable it to be identified.
A security interest is perfected by possession, control (the same step as above for attachment to occur) or registration of a financing statement in the on-line Jersey register (although there are exceptions as to automatic perfection and trustees that are not trustees of prescribed unit trusts are exempt from the registration provisions of the law). Possession only perfects a security interest in a documentary intangible. Control that perfects a security interest in securities (that is securities represented by a certificate and not bearer securities) means the secured party is either:
Registered as the holder of the securities.
In possession of the certificate.
Control that perfects a security interest in a bank account means any one of the following:
The account is transferred into the name of the secured party with written agreement of the grantor and deposit bank.
The grantor, secured party and the deposit bank agree in writing that the deposit bank will comply with instructions from the secured party as to disposition of funds.
The account is assigned by way of security to the secured party by instrument in writing by the grantor and notice of the assignment is given in writing to the deposit bank.
The secured party is also the deposit bank with which the account is held.
Control that perfects a security interest in an investment securities account means:
The securities account is transferred into the name of the secured party with the written agreement of the grantor and the intermediary/broker with whom the account is held.
The grantor, secured party and the intermediary agree in writing that the intermediary will comply with instructions from the secured party as to disposition of securities credited to the securities account.
The secured party is also the intermediary with which the securities account is held.
Effects of non-compliance. Tangible movables: Failure to comply with any of the above formalities for creation of a pledge renders the security void (in the sense that no security is created).
Intangible movables: Failure to comply with the requirements for attachment of a security interest means that no security interest is created. Failure to comply with any of the requirements for perfection (unless the above trustee exemption applies) means that the security will give rights only against the grantor and will not be enforceable against a third party and is void in insolvency.
Creditor and contributory ranking
The two most frequently used processes are (see Question 7):
Désastre, where the Viscount of the Royal Court of Jersey (Viscount) is appointed by the Court.
Creditors' winding up, where a liquidator is appointed by the company's shareholders.
The process of dégrèvement (see Question 7) has its own set of rules in relation to the priority of creditors on enforcement. Dégrèvement is a process limited to the disencumberment of the immovable property of a bankrupt whereas désastre is a more general insolvency process.
Order of priority
The order of priority is essentially the same as follows:
Fees of the Viscount or the liquidator. This includes costs, charges and expenses (though the formal scope of the fees for a liquidator is slightly different from the fees of the Viscount in a désastre).
Debtor's employees. This is for arrears of wages for up to six months before the declaration of désastre/commencement of the creditors' winding up. Employee holiday pay and bonuses are also included.
Taxes, rent and rates. Payments include health insurance, social security, income tax, goods and services tax, rental arrears and parochial rates.
All other debts proved in the désastre/creditors' winding up, which rank pari passu.
On a company's dissolution, the remaining monies, if any, are distributed among the shareholders. A shareholder can claim as a creditor in respect of a shareholder loan made by it.
Secured creditors in respect of immovable property are entitled to be repaid as a preference from the realisation of the property to which their security (hypothec) relates, less the costs, fees and charges incurred in the sale (see Question 1, Movable property).
A creditor holding a pledge over tangible movable property can retain or sell the asset (see Question 1, Immovable property).
Secured creditors who have a security interest granted under the Security Interests Law in respect of the debtor's property are entitled to appropriate collateral or take the proceeds of sale of the collateral. The secured party can apply the proceeds of sale or value of appropriated collateral to discharging the secured obligations and can deduct its reasonable costs incurred in and incidental to (for example, conducting a valuation) the appropriation or incurred in or incidental to taking possession or control of, holding, valuing and preparing for sale and selling the collateral. The surplus, if any, is paid in the following order, to:
Discharge any subordinate security interest that is perfected by registration.
Any other person who gave the secured party notice that he claims an interest in the collateral and the secured party is satisfied that he has a legally enforceable interest.
Rather than distributing any surplus, a secured party can elect instead to pay the surplus into court.
Secured creditors are therefore treated in accordance with the three sets of rules outlined above. Their security assets are not available to general creditors, except to the extent of any surplus proceeds. The priority of repayment between secured creditors is determined by the date of the hypothec (date of registration) or the priority position attributable to the security interest agreement, subject to any contractual subordination. The priority is reversed under the dégrèvement process (see Question 7).
As to the priority position of security interests under the Security Interests Law, there are general rules of priority that provide that:
Perfected security has priority over unperfected security.
Priority among perfected security interests in the same collateral goes to the security interest that was perfected first.
Priority among unperfected security interests in the same collateral is determined by order of attachment.
Special priority rules apply in the case of collateral that is securities (represented by a certificate), bank accounts and investment securities accounts. These include that:
Security taken by a deposit bank in an account held with that deposit bank takes priority over any other security interest, unless that other security interest is created by having the account transferred into the name of the other secured party. The same rule applies in the case of a securities account and an intermediary.
Subject to the above, security perfected by control or possession trumps security in the same collateral perfected only by registration, so for those asset types where control or possession can be obtained, it should be obtained.
For the application of set-off, see Question 4, Set-off of obligations. This gives priority to a creditor to the extent of the set-off that is mandatory or allowed.
Jersey law does not mention holders of security created under foreign law over foreign (situated) assets in the order of repayment on insolvency. Their entitlement is a matter of foreign law, but duly constituted foreign law security is recognised in a Jersey insolvency. UK real property is an example commonly met in Jersey of foreign situated assets.
In practice, the way in which the holder of foreign security, or a receiver appointed by him, proceeds in the Jersey insolvency (in particular by way of self-help (that is, enforcement of security by a secured party outside the insolvency process, independently of the Viscount or the liquidator)), despite Jersey law, depends on the circumstances, including whether the secured party will want to claim in the Jersey insolvency for an unsecured amount. The Court will generally recognise UK Administrators and has recognised other species of receivers.
In a désastre, all the assets of the debtor vest in the Viscount who takes those assets subject to security. If the debtor has granted title security, so that the secured party holds title to the secured property, that property is no longer an asset of the debtor.
In a creditors' winding up, the liquidator sits in the shoes of the insolvent company's directors. Although no assets are "vested" in the liquidator, only the liquidator can deal with the property of the company (unless and to the extent that the liquidation committee, or if none, the creditors authorise(s) the directors to continue exercising their powers so far as may be required for the company's beneficial winding up), subject to any security and security rights over it.
For more information on the désastre and creditors' winding-up procedures, see Question 7.
By the Powers of Attorney (Jersey) Law 1995, powers of attorney granted in support of security, under foreign law as well as under a Jersey security interest agreement, survive insolvency.
Unpaid debts and recovery
In a contract for the sale of specific goods, the seller can attempt to secure unpaid debts by using a retention of title clause. The seller can expressly retain a right of disposal until the buyer meets certain conditions (Article 44, Supply of Goods and Services (Jersey) Law 2009 (SOGAS)). In the following cases the seller may retain possession of goods which are the subject of a contract for sale until the buyer has paid in full:
The goods have been sold without any stipulation as to credit.
The goods have been sold on credit but the term of credit has expired.
The buyer becomes insolvent (Article 70, SOGAS). In this situation the unpaid seller has a right to stop the goods in transit and resume possession, and retain them until payment (Article 73, SOGAS).
However, if the seller does not have actual possession of the goods, or the goods cannot easily be ascertained, the seller should proceed with caution when relying on such a clause. An unpaid seller of goods loses his right of retention if:
He delivers the goods to a carrier or depositee for transmission to the buyer and does not reserve a right of disposal.
The buyer or his agent lawfully obtains possession of the goods.
He waives the right of retention (Article 72, SOGAS).
Articles 74 and 75 of SOGAS provide detailed rules on the duration of transit and how stoppage in transit is effected. An unpaid seller's right of retention or stoppage in transit is not affected by a buyer selling or otherwise disposing of the goods, unless the seller has consented to the sale or disposal (Article 76, SOGAS). An unpaid seller's rights can however be defeated or overridden where a document of title has been lawfully transferred to a buyer or owner, and that person transfers it to a person who takes it in good faith.
A company can enter into a compromise agreement with its creditors and shareholders, subject to specified majority votes (Article 125, Companies Law, with a similar provision at Article 167). The Court can approve a compromise agreement and, if so, a copy of the Act of Court (that is, court order) must be filed with the Jersey Companies' Registry (Registry).
A compromise agreement can also be binding outside of the Companies Law framework. However, in the absence of 100% creditor consent, these agreements may be liable to be set aside on a bankruptcy as being preferences (see Question 10).
Basic debt recovery
For basic debt recovery and enforcement, a creditor can obtain judgment from either the:
Petty Debts Court, for claims excluding costs and interest of GB£10,000 or less.
Royal Court, for claims excluding costs and interest GB£10,000.
A creditor can enforce the judgment by sending it to the Viscount. The Viscount's powers include:
Arranging seizure of the debtor's wages directly from the employer. This can only be implemented if the debtor is an employee. It is not possible to seize the debtor's earnings if the debtor is self-employed.
The seizure of any valuable assets from the debtor and arranging for those assets to be sold at a public auction. The proceeds are used to pay off the judgment debt, less the Viscount's costs.
A judgment creditor is entitled to have a judgment for a liquidated sum registered against the title to Jersey immovable property owned by the debtor which can be enforced as a Hypotheque Judiciaire.
Set-off of obligations
Article 34 of the Bankruptcy (Désastre) (Jersey) Law 1990 (Désastre Law) provides for the mandatory set-off of sums due from one party to another at the date of the declaration of désastre (see Question 7, Désastre). The equivalent set-off of sums due on the commencement of the creditors' winding up is provided in Article 166 of the Companies Law. A set-off creditor has priority to the extent of the mandatory set-off.
A creditor may also exercise contractual set-off rights. To the extent the terms of the relevant agreement fall within the scope of the statute, these rights are given a privileged status by the Bankruptcy (Netting, Contractual Subordination and Non-Petition Provisions) (Jersey) Law 2005 (Netting Law).
Rescue and insolvency procedures
There is no codified statutory or customary corporate rescue process in common use. It has been possible to use the just and equitable winding up (J&E) jurisdiction under the Companies Law in certain limited circumstances. This is a continually evolving area of law without consistent jurisdiction. There is also an older process under the Loi (1839) Sur Les Remises des Biens and named remise de biens that may be afforded by the Court to temporarily embarrassed debtors.
Objective. J&E: Winding up of the company with the possibility of the appointed liquidators selling parts of the business and assets as a going concern.
Remise: Payment of the secured creditors of the debtor's heritage (being Jersey situs immoveable (real) property including lease interests held which are for a term in excess of 9 years), excess to unsecured.
Initiation. J&E: Application by the Company, a member or a director.
Remise: Application by the debtor.
Substantive tests. J&E: No stated test, save that the court must be satisfied that it is just and equitable in all the circumstances.
Remise: Debtor must have heritage and the court at the outset must be satisfied there is a real prospect that all secured creditors on that property will be paid.
Consents and approvals. J&E and Remise: Court processes subject to their discretion.
Protection from creditors. J&E: It would be common for orders to be made prohibiting collateral creditor actions without the leave of the Court. Remise: Enforcement prevented because all of the debtor's assets are placed into the hands of the Court.
Remise: Enforcement prevented because all of the debtor's assets are placed into the hands of the Court.
Length of procedure. J&E: No set timetable.
Remise: Six months, but is customarily extended to 12 months if required.
Conclusion. J&E: By further court order or as may otherwise be set by the court.
Remise: On successful realisation of the heritage or if not done within 12 months then process automatically converts to a voluntary cession, a voluntary foreclosure of the debtor's estate for the benefit of creditors without the prospect of any surplus being paid to the debtor.
Objective. A declaration of désastre (strictly, a declaration that a person's property is en désastre) under the Désastre Law is granted by the Court and is a formal declaration of bankruptcy. A désastre can be granted against individuals, companies, and incorporated and unincorporated partnerships. The purpose of the declaration is to collect and realise the debtor's assets for the benefit of its creditors as appropriate, including settling claims.
Initiation. If the debtor has realisable assets, the debtor, or a creditor with a liquidated claim of more than GB£3,000, can apply to the Court.
There are no specific consents and approvals required, except for the requirement that the declaration be made by the Court, which has discretion whether or not to make the declaration.
Substantive tests. The Court has a wide judicial discretion whether or not to grant a declaration in respect of the debtor (Désastre Law). A declaration will only be granted if the Court considers it just and equitable to do so when the application is made by Jersey Financial Services Commission. The applicant must be able to show that the debtor is insolvent (that is, unable to pay its debts as they fall due). A declaration of désastre under the Désastre Law does not require a balance sheet test.
However, there is provision in the Désastre Law for the debtor to recall the declaration if the debtor can prove that it can pay the claims in full. This might be the case, for example, when the debtor is cash flow but not balance sheet insolvent.
Consent and approvals. A désastre can only be granted by the Court.
Supervision and control. The Court supervises the procedure. The Viscount controls the procedure and is responsible for the realisation and distribution of the debtor's assets. The Court retains a general supervisory jurisdiction over the Viscount's conduct of a désastre which is actionable on application by debtors and creditors.
Protection from creditors. If a creditor has a claim that can be proved in the désastre, it cannot do either of the following:
Seek any other remedy against the debtor.
Commence or, without the consent of the Viscount or leave of the Court, continue any other actions for recovery against the debtor (Article 10, Désastre Law), provided that nothing in Article 10 prevents a secured party enforcing a security interest agreement under the Security Interests Law without the consent of the Viscount.
Length of procedure. The debtor is typically discharged from the désastre after four years, although that may be varied on application by the Viscount, the debtor or the creditor. The désastre continues until the assets are distributed, which cannot commence less than 3 months after the order for a matrimonial home or 40 days for movable property (unless they are perishable) or other immovable property.
Conclusion. After realising all of the debtor's property, the Viscount must:
Supply all of the creditors with a report.
Prepare a set of accounts relating to the désastre, which will be made available to the Court and the creditors.
Pay the final dividend due to the creditors.
Pay any surplus (if any) to the debtor, or where the debtor is a company, its shareholders.
The Viscount must apply for the order of discharge typically after four years although this may be varied on application. Undistributed property remains vested in the Viscount after discharge. Upon discharge an individual debtor ceases to be liable for any debts provable in the désastre other than debts incurred by fraud, fraudulent breach of trust or under matrimonial finance obligations.
If the debtor is a company, the Viscount must notify the Registrar of Companies (Registrar) of the date the final dividend is paid. On receipt of that notice, the Registrar files a notice of dissolution in respect of the company.
Creditors' winding up
Objective. The purpose of this procedure is to wind up the company. It involves collecting and realising the company's assets for the benefit of creditors as appropriate, including settling claims, but not at the instigation of creditors.
Part 21, Chapter 4 of the Companies Law sets out the procedure for a creditors' winding up.
Initiation. The procedure is not initiated by the creditors of a Jersey company. Instead, a creditors' winding up is commenced when the shareholders pass a special resolution. If a declaration of désastre has been granted and has not been recalled, a creditors' winding up can only be commenced with leave of the Court.
The following steps are required in the following order:
The directors must by notice to the company's shareholders call a general meeting for the purpose of:
passing a special resolution for a creditors' winding up; and
making a recommendation to the shareholders that the company should be wound up.
The directors at the same time give notice to the shareholders of the identity of the proposed liquidator.
At least 14 days before the general meeting, the company must give postal notice to all creditors of the intention to hold a creditors' meeting and to nominate a liquidator. The creditors' meeting takes place on the same day as and is usually immediately after the general meeting. At the creditors' meeting, the creditors either:
approve the appointment of the liquidator nominated by the company; or
nominate a liquidator of their own.
At least ten days before the general meeting, the company must give notice in the Jersey Gazette to all creditors, informing them of the details of the creditors' meeting.
At the members’ meeting there is a vote on a special resolution as to whether the company should enter a creditor’s winding up process and if so, who should be proposed to the creditors as the liquidator.
At the creditors’ meeting the creditors receive a statement of affairs of the company and are entitled to vote on the liquidator proposed by the members or propose an alternative, and in default of agreement the matter is referred to the Court.
If the special resolution is passed, a notice must be published in the Jersey Gazette within 14 days of the general meeting, stating that the special resolution has been passed and the identified liquidator appointed.
Within 14 days of his appointment, the liquidator must notify the following of his appointment:
the company's creditors.
Substantive tests. A creditors' winding up is available if:
It is appropriate for the company to be wound up.
The directors cannot sign a statement of solvency in the form prescribed by the Companies Law for a summary (solvent) winding up.
Consent and approvals. The process can only be commenced by the members of the company voting by special resolution (two-thirds majority).
Supervision and control. The effect is a declaration of bankruptcy under Jersey law. The company must cease to carry on its business except so far as necessary for its beneficial winding up. The directors must surrender control of the company to the liquidator (unless and to the extent that the liquidation committee, or if none, the creditors, authorise the directors to continue exercising their powers). The liquidator or liquidation committee supervises and controls the winding up. The liquidator can make an application to the Court for directions in complex cases.
Protection from creditors. No action can be taken or proceeded with against the company once a creditors' winding up has commenced, unless leave is obtained from the Court (Article 159(4), Companies Law).
Length of procedure. There are various specific time frames set out in the Companies Law for providing notice and filing special resolutions. The duration of the procedure depends on:
The complexity of the company's operations.
The nature of the company's assets and liabilities.
Whether there are any investigations into the conduct of the company's officers.
A creditors' winding up can be completed quickly if all creditors are "on side" from the outset. A period of about six months to one year is not unusual.
Conclusion. After the affairs of the company are fully wound up, the liquidator must:
Make an account of how the creditors' winding up has been conducted.
Present the account at a general meeting and a meeting of the creditors (giving at least 21 days' notice).
Within seven days of the meetings, the liquidator must make a return to the Registrar, in a non-prescribed form document providing the dates of the meetings. If the company is a public company, the return must be accompanied by a copy of the account.
On receipt, the Registrar will register the return (and account where appropriate).
The company is deemed dissolved three months from the date of registration by the Registrar. The three month period can be extended by order of the Court.
Just and equitable winding up
Objective. The Companies Law provides that the Court can wind up a company, whether solvent or insolvent, if it is satisfied that it has the power to do so under Article 155 of the Companies Law (Part 21, Chapter 3, Companies Law) (see below, substantive tests).
Initiation. A just and equitable winding up can be commenced by:
Any director of the company.
Any company shareholder.
The Minister for Economic Development (Minister).
The Jersey Financial Services Commission (JFSC).
If the winding up is commenced by the company, the Court requires that it does so following an extraordinary general meeting held in accordance with the Companies Law and the company's articles of association. However, an individual director or shareholder does not need any special consent to make the application.
Once the Court has ordered a just and equitable winding up, the Act of Court must be registered with the Registrar within 14 days.
Substantive tests. The Court will only make an order for a company to be wound up where no declaration under the Désastre Law has been granted and it is satisfied that it is either (Article 155, Companies Law):
Just and equitable to do so.
Expedient in the public interest to do so (only the Minister or the JFSC can make an application on these grounds).
Consent and approvals. The process can only be approved by the Court.
Supervision and control. A just and equitable winding up is supervised by the Court. Under Article 155 of the Companies Law, the Court has the power to:
Direct the manner in which the winding up is conducted.
Make such orders as it sees fit to ensure the orderly winding up of the company.
Appoint a liquidator.
The directors or liquidator can only act in a way that has been specified directly by the Court. If it is beneficial to the company and its creditors, the Court may permit the company to continue trading, even if the company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due.
Protection from creditors. The Court can make any orders it sees fit. It can make orders equivalent to what Article 159(4) of the Companies Law provides (see above, Creditors' winding up: Protection from creditors), but there is no guarantee it will do this.
Length of procedure. As with a creditors' winding up, a just and equitable winding up can be completed quickly. However, each case must be considered on its own merits.
Conclusion. The Court is responsible for ensuring that the affairs of the company are wound up appropriately and that the company is dissolved. If the company is insolvent, the Court can order procedures for a creditors' winding up to be followed instead.
Objective. Dégrèvement is the process for removing all encumbrances from immovable property at the request of a petitioning or enforcing creditor. Réalisation is the process which runs parallel to dégrèvement and applies to the debtor's movable property.
Initiation. A dégrèvement or réalisation can be initiated by either:
A judgment creditor.
The debtor making voluntary cession (that is, voluntarily giving up all of its property with the leave of the Court).
If the dégrèvement or réalisation is initiated by a judgment creditor and the debt remains unpaid for more than one month after the judgment is obtained, the judgment creditor can apply for an Acte Vicomte chargé d'ecrire (AVC). The AVC is an order from the Court. The order authorises the Viscount to inform the debtor that unless the debt is repaid within a further two months, its property will be adjudged renounced by the Court and the immovable property will be the subject of a dégrèvement. An adjudication of renunciation is a declaration of bankruptcy under Jersey law.
No specific consent or approval is required.
Substantive tests. If the process (see below, Supervision and control) is complied with, the debtor has no legal remedy to prevent either the AVC or the adjudication of renunciation.
Supervision and control. Attournées are appointed to administer the process after the Court has made an order for dégrèvement or réalisation. The attournées are usually two qualified Jersey lawyers who act as agents for the creditor that initiated the process.
Once appointed, the attournées must:
Apply to the Judicial Greffier (that is, a judicial officer of the court holding limited powers to conduct hearings) for a dégrèvement hearing date. The hearing must be between four and six weeks from the date of the adjudication of renunciation and relates only to the dégrèvement.
Publish a notice advertising the dégrèvement and the hearing date in the Jersey Gazette on two consecutive Saturdays.
Issue a summons to all secured and unsecured creditors known to them to attend the dégrèvement hearing before the Judicial Greffier.
At the hearing, the Judicial Greffier must call the creditors in the following order:
Unsecured creditors. These are called as a collective and asked whether they would like to take the property, subject to any hypothecs on the property. It is usual for the unsecured creditors not to attend, or to refuse.
Secured creditors. These are ordered by date of registration. If the creditor holding the most recent security takes the property, it does so subject to paying off the earlier ranking secured creditors in full. This is not attractive if there are a large number of secured creditors and very little (or no) equity in the property. If a secured creditor refuses to take the property, it loses its security in respect of that property for its claim against the debtor. However, the creditor will retain an unsecured claim against the debtor.
In the case of a réalisation, the Viscount is responsible for selling the debtor's movable property at public auction. The proceeds of the sale are lodged with the Treasurer of the States of Jersey and the attournées are responsible for distribution to the creditors.
Protection from creditors. Protection from creditors is limited. Creditors who are not repaid from the dégrèvement or réalisation process retain their claims on an unsecured basis.
Length of procedure. This is a short procedure with a strict timetable prescribed by law, which must be complied with (see above, Supervision and control).
Conclusion. The effect of the dégrèvement is to remove all hypothecs from the immovable property which post-date that of the creditor who takes the property (Tenant). Any hypothecs which predate those of the Tenant will remain. In practice, the Tenant will be required to repay any secured creditor with such a higher ranking security in full. There is no obligation to account to the debtor for any equity in the property.
At the conclusion of the formal dégrèvement process, the property is legally transferred to the Tenant. When the Tenant has discharged the debts secured by the hypothecs which predate those of the Tenant, the property will become unencumbered. Other creditors retain unsecured claims against the debtor.
Debt remission order
Objective. A debt remission order (DRO) is a statutory out-of-Court summary bankruptcy process for individuals with debts of less than GB£20,000.
Initiation. A DRO process is initiated by a debtor who can apply to the Viscount of Jersey in prescribed form including a list of creditors.
Substantive tests. The DRO is available to individuals over 18 years old and resident in Jersey with assets not exceeding GB£5,000. The debtor must act in "good faith" and the statute provides a non-exclusive list of conduct which is not considered as evidencing good faith.
Supervision and control. The DRO is supervised by the Viscount.
Protection from creditors. Once the DRO has been granted the creditors identified in the order are notified and are given the option to protest the making of the DRO or the inclusion of their debt or its particulars. On receipt of a protest the Viscount must adjudicate and may confirm or vary the DRO. There is a moratorium on actions by creditors listed in the DRO for the duration of the process.
Length of procedure. The DRO is discharged after 12 months but can be varied on application.
Conclusion. If the listed debts are not all satisfied after 12 months the debtor is discharged from liability for all listed debts.
Creditors have the most significant role. Since administration or any other rescue or restructuring procedure is unavailable under Jersey law, the procedures generally focus on the creditors' interests.
Influence on outcome of procedure
Jersey processes are predominantly creditor driven. Where discretionary remedies are available, the Royal Court will have creditors' interests at the forefront of its considerations.
In the absence of any agency, guarantee or contractual obligation under which such a party could be liable (jointly and severally or otherwise), the possibilities are limited.
However, the director of a company may be liable (though not directly to creditors) in the following circumstances:
Breach of fiduciary duty. Directors must act honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the company. To paraphrase, reasonable care and skill must be used when performing their duties (Article 74, Companies Law).
Wrongful trading. The director of a company may be liable, without limitation, for the debts or other liabilities of the company if (Article 177, Companies Law, and Article 44, Désastre Law):
liabilities are incurred before the commencement of a creditors' winding up or a declaration of désastre; and
the director then knew that there was no reasonable prospect that, or was reckless as to whether, the company would avoid a creditors' winding up or a declaration of désastre.
Fraudulent trading. The directors responsible will be liable for an amount the Court thinks proper if it is found, during the course of a désastre or creditors' winding up, that the company has been carrying on business with the intent to defraud (Article 178, Companies Law, and Article 45, Désastre Law):
the creditors of another person; or
for a fraudulent purpose.
Other possibilities for making a claim against a director, shareholder, parent company or other party include:
Establishing that the company was such a person's nominee.
Establishing that such a person has committed fraud using the company, enabling piercing of the corporate veil.
Partners are likely to be jointly and severely liable for each other’s debts incurred in the course of the partnership business. There are separate rules for incorporated and unincorporated limited partnerships that are beyond the scope of this work.
Parent entity (domestic or foreign)
Domestic or foreign parents who receive distributions from subsidiaries may have a statutory liability to account for a distribution if by reason of that distribution the parent may reasonably be expected to be insolvent within 12 months. Otherwise, the limited but well-trodden avenues of tracing or Pauline actions may be available to creditors.
The Royal Court has jurisdiction to make third party costs orders where an insolvent litigant has caused an ultimately successful party to engage in litigation an adverse costs order has been made.
Setting aside transactions
A company in a creditors' winding up, or that has had its property declared en désastre, can have its pre-insolvency transactions set aside in the following circumstances:
Transactions at an undervalue. The liquidator or the Viscount can bring an action to challenge any transaction the company has made during the five years preceding the date of the commencement of the creditors' winding up or the date of the declaration of désastre, if the transaction was:
a gift from the company or was for consideration worth significantly less than the value of the consideration provided by the company; and
the company was insolvent (on a cash flow test) when it entered into the transaction, or became so insolvent.
The burden of proof is reversed if the transaction was entered into with:
a person connected with the company; or
an associate of the company.
Preferences. The liquidator or the Viscount can bring an action against the company to challenge any action of the company, if it is believed the company has done anything (or allowed anything to be done) that has the effect of putting a particular creditor, surety or guarantor into a better position than if the company had not done that thing or allowed that thing to be done.
The action can only be brought if:
the action occurred during the 12 months preceding the date of the commencement of either the creditors' winding up or declaration of désastre; and
the company was insolvent (on a cash flow test) when the preference was given, or became so insolvent.
The burden of proof is reversed if the preference was given to:
a person connected with the company; or
an associate of the company.
The Court can order a preference or transaction at an undervalue to be undone. This is to restore the position to what it would have been had the debtor not entered into the transaction or given the preference.
There are certain defences and protections available, including protections for third party persons other than those who dealt directly with the company, who acted in good faith.
There are also provisions dealing with extortionate credit bargains, excessive pension contributions and matrimonial homes, which may be relevant to individual bankrupts.
Rules in respect of transactions at an undervalue and preferences are in the Companies Law at Articles 176, 176A and 176B and the Désastre Law at Articles 17, 17A and 17B.
Carrying on business during insolvency
There is no administration process or other rescue procedure to provide the mechanics for a company to carry on its business during insolvency. It is therefore unusual for a company to continue to carry on its business in these circumstances.
Under Jersey law, a company is either:
Solvent and legitimately trading.
Insolvent and should not be trading (unless there are exceptional circumstances).
Once a company has commenced a creditors' winding up, it must cease to carry on its business, except so far as may be required for its beneficial winding up (Article 159, Companies Law).
If it is beneficial to the company and its creditors to continue trading when the business is insolvent, it is likely that the company will either:
Seek agreements from its creditors which enable the directors to conclude that its debts can be paid from available resources.
Seek a court order to approve such actions. This is most likely to be given in the context of a just and equitable winding up (see Question 7, Just and equitable winding up).
The authority to supervise or carry on the company's business depends on the type of insolvency procedure:
Désastre. In a désastre, the Viscount has a limited statutory power to carry on the debtor's business. This power enables the Viscount to carry on the business as far as is necessary or expedient for its beneficial disposal (Article 26(h), Désastre Law).
Creditors' winding up. The liquidator (or directors, to the extent that their powers continue) have power to carry on the company's business for its beneficial winding up.
Just and equitable winding up. Any arrangements for carrying on the company's business are directed by the Court, which will decide:
the overall manner of conducting the winding up;
whether and how the company's business is to be carried on;
if to be carried on, whether the business is to be carried on by the directors or a liquidator.
There are no express provisions for additional finance in either the:
In addition, there is no Jersey equivalent of the US Chapter 11 procedure and its provisions for debtor-in-possession financing.
The debtor is prohibited from obtaining any additional credit during the course of a désastre beyond the current maximum threshold of GB£250, unless the bankruptcy is disclosed to the creditor (Article 25, Désastre Law).
Article 49 of the Désastre Law provides statutory provisions in relation to the assistance to and co-operation with foreign courts. However, such assistance is limited to the territories set out in the Bankruptcy (Désastre) (Jersey) Order 2006. These territories are:
The UK (comprising England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland).
The Isle of Man.
In all other matters, applications must be considered on a case-by-case basis, with regard to the principles of comity.
If the appointment of a UK administrator for a Jersey company is sought, the procedure is to apply to the Jersey Court for a letter of request to be issued to a UK court by way of the appointment of a UK administrator.
A final judgment made by or registered for execution in a Superior Court in the UK, Isle of Man or Guernsey is enforceable by registration, subject to compliance with the Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) (Jersey) Law 1960. Judgments from other jurisdictions may be enforced by way of a fresh action on the judgment without re-litigation of the substantive issues in the case.
However, this is not the case if the sum is payable in relation to:
Charges that are similar to taxes.
Fines or penalties.
Jersey courts will consider existing proceedings in other jurisdictions and generally operate on the basis that concurrent proceedings are undesirable. However, each case is treated on its own merits.
The Désastre Law and the Companies Law expressly provide that Jersey courts must have regard to the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency 1997. Jersey is not part of the EU, save to a very restricted extent in respect of trade in goods. Therefore, Regulation (EC) 1346/2000 on insolvency proceedings (Insolvency Regulation) does not apply to Jersey.
Procedures for foreign creditors
There are no special procedures for foreign creditors. Each application must be made and treated in accordance with the underlying claim and the rules that apply to all creditors.
There are long term proposals to extend the provisions of the Securities (Jersey) Law 2012 to tangible movable properties but there is no ascertained time frame for that legislation. A Jersey aircraft registry is also proposed (see Question 1, Movable property).
Otherwise there are no firm proposals for reform of Jersey restructuring or insolvency laws currently at this time.
Professional qualifications. New Zealand, 1994; England and Wales, 2007; Jersey, Advocate, 2009
Areas of practice. Banking and finance; corporate and commercial; restructuring and insolvency.
Acting for GE Capital Real Estate in its GB£130 million financing of Blackstone's GB£186 million acquisition of St Enoch Shopping Centre, Glasgow, from Ivanhoe Cambridge.
Acting for Morgan Stanley in its GB£60 million financing of Blackstone's acquisition of 1 America Square, London.
Acted for Oxford Properties in its GB£175 million acquisition of MidCity Place, London.
Acted for GE Capital Real Estate in its GB£72 million financing of Ares Real Estate Group's £115m acquisition of 10 Fleet Place, London.
Professional associations/memberships. Member of INSOL; member of the banking lawyers group that worked with government on the introduction of the Security Interests (Jersey) Law 2012.
Professional qualifications. England and Wales, 1997; Jersey, Advocate, 2004; British Virgin Islands, Barrister, 2015
Areas of practice. Banking and finance; corporate and commercial; restructuring and insolvency.
Novel application leading to an extension of the law of just and equitable winding up of a trading company permitted to carry on trading during process.
Sale of business and assets of insolvent trading company. Value was realised for the business and recovery for all creditors, which was not foreseeable in a bankruptcy.
A series of reciprocal recognition matters including acting for BOS and NAMA in commencing the process of administration in England for the Jersey incorporated Battersea Power Station borrowing companies.
Jersey's first quasi pre-pack application under the just and equitable jurisdiction leading to successful sale of business and assets out of liquidation.
Professional associations/memberships. Member of INSOL, Chancery Bar Association.
Professional qualifications. England and Wales, Barrister, 1996; Barrister and Attorney, Bermuda, 2010; Jersey, Advocate, 2014; British Virgin Islands, Barrister, 2015
Areas of practice. Dispute resolution and litigation; insurance litigation; restructuring and insolvency.
Advising the senior lending group in the multi-jurisdictional winding up of an international marketing and media group.
Advising Jersey investors on formation of the Channel Islands Lines freight service following the liquidation of the Huelin Renouf shipping company.
Advising on the first application for appointment of Scottish Administrators over a Jersey Company.
Advising on the reconstruction of a Jersey LLP to facilitate enforcement by the secured lender (In re Deansgate Manchester Limited  JRC243).
Advising on the first recognition of the equitable receivers appointed into a Jersey company (In re Palmerstone Estates Limited  JRC066).
Advising on a creditor’s restoration of a dissolved Jersey company into an English administration to effect enforcement (In re Northern Investments (Wrexham) Limited  JRC208).
Professional associations/memberships. Member of INSOL, sits on the INSOL Review editorial committee andthe Executive Committee of ARIES, the Association of Restructuring and Insolvency Experts; Chancery Bar Association.