Pharmaceutical IP and competition law in Japan: overview

A Q&A guide to pharmaceutical IP and competition law in Japan.

The Q&A gives a high level overview of key issues including patents, trade marks, competition law, patent licensing, generic entry, abuse of dominance and parallel imports.

For information on pharmaceutical pricing and state funding, manufacturing, marketing, clinical trials, advertising, labelling, and product recall and liability, visit Medicinal product regulation and product liability in Japan: overview.

The Q&A is part of the global guide to life sciences law. For a full list of jurisdictional Q&As visit www.practicallaw.com/lifesciences-guide.

Contents

Patents

1. What are the legal conditions to obtain a patent and which legislation applies? Which products, substances and processes can be protected by patents and what types cannot be patent protected?

Conditions and legislation

Article 29 of the Patent Act (Act No.121 of April 13, 1959) stipulates that the legal conditions to obtain a patent are as follows.

An inventor of an invention that is industrially applicable can obtain a patent unless either:

  • The invention was publicly known, was publicly implemented, was described on a publication, or was made publicly available through an electric telecommunication line, prior to filing of the patent application. This means that the invention must have novelty over the prior art,

  • A person skilled in the art could have easily conceived the invention prior to the filing of the patent application based on inventions known to the public. This means that the invention must demonstrate inventive steps in light of the prior art.

For biological inventions and medicinal inventions, the Japan Patent Office (JPO) publishes examination guidelines on its website. (www.jpo.go.jp/tetuzuki_e/t_tokkyo_e/1312-002_e.htm). In the examination guidelines, Part 7, Chapter 2 is about biological inventions, and Part 7, Chapter 3 is about medicinal inventions.

According to the examination guidelines, the novelty of a medicinal invention is judged from two points of view (section 2.2.1 of Part 7, Chapter 3 of the examination guidelines):

  • Compounds with a specific attribute.

  • A medicinal use based on the attribute.

The guidelines also state that a description of the results of pharmacological tests is usually required, with working examples supporting the medical use (section 1.2.1 of Part 7, Chapter 3 of the examination guidelines).

Japan has adopted the first-to-file system. Therefore, a person who has first filed a patent application will be granted the patent for the relevant invention if the invention and the application satisfy the relevant requirements.

Scope of protection

The novelty of a medicinal invention is judged not only on the compound itself, but also on a new medicinal use based on the attribute of the compound (see above, Conditions and legislation). Therefore, even if the structure of a certain chemical compound is known to the public as of the filing date, a new patent can be granted for the same chemical compound if an inventor finds a new medicinal use. In that case, the patent only covers the chemical compound to be used for that specific purpose.

A method of treating humans by surgery or therapy is not patentable subject matter in Japan. Diagnostic methods practised on the human body also cannot be patented. The patent examination guidelines consider that these methods are industrially inapplicable inventions (section 2.1.1 of Part 2, Chapter 1 of the examination guidelines).

 
2. How is a patent obtained?

Application and guidance

Patent applications must be filed with the JPO (www.jpo.go.jp).

The JPO's website provides guidelines on the application procedure (www.jpo.go.jp/tetuzuki_e/t_gaiyo_e/pa_right.htm) and fees (www.jpo.go.jp/tetuzuki_e/ryoukin_e/ryokine.htm).

Process and timing

According to the JPO's guidelines, an outline of the patent examination procedure is as follows:

  • Formality examination.

  • Publication. 18 months after the application filing date, the JPO publishes the content of the application.

  • Request for examination. The Patent Act stipulates that examination of a patent application will be initiated after the applicant files a request for examination. The Patent Act also states that the request must be filed within three years from the application filing date. Otherwise, any patent applications are deemed to be withdrawn.

  • Substantive examination. After a request for examination is filed, an examiner of the JPO starts the substantive examination of the relevant patent application. If the examiner finds reason(s) for refusal, a notification of the reasons for refusal will be sent to the applicant. After receiving the notification, the applicant can submit a written statement that the patent should be granted for the application. The applicant can also amend the claims, specifications, and/or drawings to overcome the reasons for refusal.

  • Decision to grant a patent/decision of refusal. If there are no reasons for refusal, the examiner decides to grant a patent as a result of the examination. Provided that the applicant pays the necessary patent fee, the patent right will come into effect as it is entered in the Patent Register.

  • Appeal against a refusal. The applicant can file a request for an appeal trial against a decision of refusal. The board of trial examiners handles appeal trials. If the board of trial examiners finds that the refusal is erroneous, it issues an appeal decision to revoke the examiner's refusal and to declare that a patent should be granted for the application. If the board of trial examiners finds that the refusal should be sustained, it renders a trial decision dismissing the applicant's request. An applicant dissatisfied with a trial decision dismissing the applicant's request can file an action with the Intellectual Property High Court to seek rescindment of the trial decision.

According to statistics published by the JPO, the average period from a request for examination to the first action (that is, first notification of refusal or decision to grant a patent) was 9.6 months in 2014.

 
3. How long does patent protection typically last? Can monopoly rights be extended by other means?

Duration and renewal

The duration of a patent right expires after a period of 20 years from the filing date of the patent application. The duration cannot be renewed.

Extending protection

If a patentee (or a licensee) cannot implement a patented invention during a certain period because of the need to obtain marketing approval under the Act on Securing Quality, Efficacy and Safety of Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices, Regenerative and Cellular Therapy Product, Gene Therapy Products, and Cosmetics (Law No. 145, 1960), the duration can be extended for a period up to five years.

To enjoy an extended patent term, the patentee must file a request for registration of the extension with the JPO within three months from the date of the marketing approval required to implement the patented invention.

The JPO publishes examination guidelines for patent term extension. The latest examination guidelines were published on 28 December 2011. However on 30 May 2014, the Grand Panel of the Intellectual Property High Court issued a decision revoking a JPO decision which had dismissed an application for patent term extension under the current guidelines. Therefore, if the Grand Panel's decision is upheld by the Supreme Court, it is likely that the JPO will revise the examination guidelines.

 
4. How can a patent be revoked?

After a patent is registered, any person can file an opposition to seek rescindment of the registration within six months from the publication date of the Patent Gazette. In the opposition proceedings, no oral hearings are held, and the examination is performed only on a document-basis. This opposition procedure only applies to patents published in the Patent Gazette on or after 1 April 2015. The board of trial examiners examines oppositions, and if it finds that a patent should be revoked, it must give notice to the patentee. In that case, the patentee will be given an opportunity to file a brief and/or correct the patent claims, specification and/or drawings.

Grounds for registration revocation include the following:

  • An illegal amendment was made during prosecution of the patent.

  • The patented invention lacked novelty when the inventor filed the application.

  • The patented invention did not have an inventive step at the time of filing.

  • The patent specification is not clear and sufficient enough to enable a person skilled in the art to implement the patented invention.

  • The patented invention is not supported by the description of the specification.

  • The patent invention is not clearly described in the scope of claims.

After six months from the publication date of the Patent Gazette, only a person with an interest in the patent can file a request for a patent invalidation trial.

In addition to the grounds for registration revocation, grounds for patent invalidation include the following:

  • The patent was granted for a misappropriated application.

  • An illegal correction was made to the claims, specification or drawings.

 
5. How is a patent infringed? How is a claim for patent infringement made and what remedies are available?

Conditions for infringement

A patent right is effective upon registration. If a person implements a patented invention without the patentee's permission, such implementation is deemed as infringement. Under the Patent Act, inventions are divided into three categories:

  • Inventions of a product.

  • Inventions of a process.

  • Inventions of a process for producing a product.

The term implementation means the following acts;

  • In the case of an invention of a product, the production, use, assignment (including lease), export or import, or an offer for the assignment (including lease) of it.

  • In the case of an invention of a process, the use of it.

  • In the case of an invention of a process for producing a product, the use of the process, assignment (including lease), export or import, or an offering for the assignment (including lease) of the product produced by the process.

For an accused product or an accused process to constitute a literal infringement, the accused product or the accused process must have all the features of the patented invention. An infringement can be established under the doctrine of equivalents.

The Patent Act does not have a provision stipulating that filing an application for a marketing approval for a generic drug constitutes a patent infringement.

Claim and remedies

Under the Patent Act, a patentee can seek an injunction order to prevent infringement. A patentee can also request a court to order an infringer to take measures necessary for the prevention of the infringement (including the destruction of infringing products). Judges usually render an injunction order automatically when they find a patent infringement.

A patentee can also make a claim for damages. Under the Patent Act, the patentee can seek damages calculated based on the following:

  • The patentee's profits but for the infringement (that is, the profit per unit of articles which would have been sold by the patentee but for the infringement, multiplied by the quantity of articles assigned by the infringer).

  • The infringer's profits.

  • A reasonable royalty.

According to the Intellectual Property High Court's Grand Panel decision rendered on 1 February 2013, even if the patentee does not implement a patented invention in Japan, it can seek damages calculated based on the infringer's profits, as long as there are circumstances where the patentee should have gained profits but for the infringement.

 
6. Are there non-patent barriers to competition to protect medicinal products?

In Japan, the re-examination system protects originator pharmaceutical companies in a way similar to the data exclusivity and the marketing exclusivity systems in the EU and the US.

The re-examination period for each new pharmaceutical product is determined by the category of the product as follows:

  • Orphan drugs: ten years from the date the marketing approval was granted.

  • Drugs with a new active ingredient, excluding orphan drugs: eight years from the date the marketing approval was granted.

  • Drugs for which only the indications clearly differ from those of drugs which have already been approved for marketing: four to six years from the date the marketing approval was granted.

During the re-examination period, the marketing approval holder must perform a post marketing study of the new drug and report the results of the study to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In addition, during the re-examination period, a person cannot obtain a marketing approval for a generic product without filing more extensive clinical data than was attached to the application for the original drug.

Therefore, although the primary purpose of the re-examination system is to secure the safety and efficacy of newly approved drugs, it virtually provides similar protection for originator pharmaceutical companies to the data exclusivity and marketing exclusivity systems in the EU and the US.

 

Trade marks

7. What are the legal conditions to obtain a trade mark and which legislation applies? What cannot be registered as a trade mark and can a medicinal brand be registered as a trade mark?

Conditions and legislation

The Trade Mark Act (Act No. 127 of April 13, 1959) sets out the legal criteria to obtain a trade mark registration as follows.

Any trade mark to be used in connection with goods or services pertaining to the business of an applicant can be registered, unless the trade mark;

  • Consists solely of a mark indicating, in a common manner, the common name of the goods or services.

  • Is customarily used in connection with the goods or services.

  • Consists solely of a mark indicating, in a common manner:

    • in the case of goods, the place of origin, place of sale, quality, raw materials, efficacy, intended purpose, quantity, shape (including shape of packages), price, the method or time of production or use; or

    • in the case of services, the location of provision, quality, articles to be used in such provision, efficacy, intended purpose, quantity, modes, price or method or time of provision.

  • Consists solely of a mark indicating, in a common manner, a common surname or name of a legal person.

  • Consists solely of a very simple and common mark.

  • Is a trade mark by which consumers are not able to recognise the goods or services as those pertaining to a business of a particular person.

Despite the above requirements, a trade mark that falls under any of the third to fifth items above can be registered if, as a result of the use of the trade mark, consumers are able to recognise the goods or services as those pertaining to the business of a particular person.

"Trade mark" includes any character(s), figure(s), sign(s) or three-dimensional shape(s), or any combination of them. In addition, after 1 April 2015, motions, colours, positions and sounds can be protected as a trade mark under the Trade Mark Act.

Scope of protection

Article 4 of the Trade Mark Acts stipulates 19 categories which cannot be registered as a trade mark. These include a trade mark which is likely to:

  • Cause damage to public policy.

  • Cause confusion in connection with the goods or services pertaining to the business of another person.

  • Mislead as to the quality of the goods or services.

A medicinal brand can be registered as a trade mark unless it falls under the above categories.

 
8. How is a trade mark registered?

Application and guidance

Trade mark applications must be filed with the Japan Patent Office (JPO) (www.jpo.go.jp).

The JPO's website provides guidelines on the application procedure (www.jpo.go.jp/tetuzuki_e/t_gaiyo_e/tr_ right.htm ) and fees (www.jpo.go.jp/tetuzuki_e/ryoukin_e/ryokine.htm).

Process and timing

According to the JPO's guidelines, an outline of the procedure for obtaining a trade mark right is as follows:

  • Formality examination.

  • Publication. After filing an application, the JPO publishes the content of the application. It usually takes a month or two after the application filing date.

  • Substantive examination. An examiner of the JPO examines trade mark applications. If the examiner finds a reason for refusal, notification of the reason for refusal is sent to the applicant. After receiving it, the applicant can submit a written argument that the trade mark should be registered. The applicant can also narrow the scope of designated services and/or goods to overcome the reasons for refusal.

  • Decision of registration/decision of refusal. If there are no reasons for refusal, the examiner makes a decision of registration. Provided that the applicant pays the registration fee, the trade mark right will come into effect as it is entered in the trade mark register. The contents of the registration are published.

  • Appeal against decision of refusal. If a trade mark application is refused by an examiner of the JPO, the applicant can appeal against the decision to the board of trial examiners of the JPO. When the board decides that the decision of refusal should be revoked, it issues a trial decision to register the trade mark. If the panel of the trial examiners judge that the refusal should be sustained, the board will issue a trial decision to dismiss the appeal. An applicant who is dissatisfied with a trial decision dismissing an appeal can file an action with the Intellectual Property High Court to seek rescindment of the trial decision.

According to statistics published by the JPO, the average period from application to the first action (first notification of refusal or decision of registration) was 4.3 months in 2014.

 
9. How long does trade mark protection typically last?

The duration of a trade mark right will expire after a period of ten years from the filing date of the registration.

The duration can be renewed every ten years. An application for registration of renewal must be filed during the period from six months prior to the expiration date.

 
10. How can a trade mark be revoked?

After a trade mark is registered, any person can file an opposition to the trade mark registration within two months from the publication date of the trade mark registration, to seek rescindment of the registration.

After that, only interested persons can file a request for trade mark invalidation based on registration violation of the registration requirements.

In addition, any person can file a request for a trial for rescission of a trade mark registration if either:

  • A registered trade mark has not been used in Japan for three consecutive years by the trade mark right holder.

  • A trade mark right holder intentionally uses the trade mark (or a trade mark similar to a registered trade mark) to mislead as to the quality of the goods or service, or to cause confusion in connection with the business of another person.

 
11. How is a trade mark infringed? How is a claim for trade mark infringement made and what remedies are available?

Conditions

A trade mark right becomes effective upon registration of its establishment.

If a person uses a mark identical or similar to a registered trade mark in connection with goods or services identical or similar to the designated goods or designated services of the registered trade mark without the permission of the trade mark right holder, such use constitutes trade mark infringement.

In addition, the possession or importation of articles affixed with the registered trade mark or a mark similar to it can constitute trademark infringement if certain conditions are satisfied. Further, the possession, assignment, delivery or manufacture of articles indicating the registered trade mark or a mark similar to it can also constitute a trade mark infringement under certain circumstances.

Claim and remedies

Under the Trade Mark Act, the holder of a trade mark right can seek:

  • An injunction order against the infringement of a trade mark right.

  • A court decision to order the infringer to take measures necessary for the prevention of the infringement, including the destruction of articles which constitute the act of infringement and the removal of equipment used for or contributing to the act of infringement.

The holder can also make a claim for damages. Under the Trade Mark Act, the holder can seek damages calculated by the following:

  • The trade mark right holder's profits but for the infringement (that is, the profit per unit of articles which would have been sold by the holder but for the infringement, multiplied by the quantity of articles assigned by the infringer).

  • The infringer's profits.

  • A reasonable royalty.

 
12. Outline the regulatory powers and enforcement action against counterfeiting in the pharmaceutical sector.

Paragraph 2 of Article 55 of the Act on Securing Quality, Efficacy and Safety of Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices, Regenerative and Cellular Therapy Product, Gene Therapy Products, and Cosmetics (Law No. 145, 1960) prohibits selling, handling, storing, or exhibiting for the purpose of retail or handover of counterfeit drugs. According to Item 14 of Article 84 of the Act, a person who has violated this provision is liable to penal servitude up to three years or a fine up to JPY3,000, or both.

The Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare and prefectural governors can issue an order that a person handling counterfeit drugs must take adequate measures, including disposal and recall of these products. In addition, they can have the officer dispose of or recall these products.

Japan Customs has regulatory power regarding the import or export of products infringing intellectual property rights (such as trade mark rights).

 

IP and competition law issues

13. Briefly outline the competition law framework in your jurisdiction and how it impacts on the pharmaceutical sector. In particular, the competition authorities and their regulatory powers, key legislation, whether pharmaceutical investigations are common, key recent activity and case law.

The Act on Prohibition of Private Monopolisation and Maintenance of Fair Trade (Act No. 54 of April 14, 1947 (Anti-Monopoly Act) establishes regulations regarding competition. The Anti-Monopoly Act mainly prohibits the following acts and situations:

  • Private monopolisation.

  • Unreasonable restraint of trade.

  • Inappropriate acts, such as restraining competition, of a trade association.

  • Business combinations causing restraint of competition.

  • Monopolistic situations.

  • Unfair trade practices.

An enterprise which has violated the Anti-Monopoly Act will be ordered to cease from engaging in these acts. The violation is also subject to criminal penalties. Additionally, an enterprise which has violated certain acts such as forming a cartel can be ordered to pay a surcharge to the national treasury.

In addition, a person whose interests are infringed or likely to be infringed by acts constituting unfair trade practice is entitled to seek the suspension or prevention of the acts. A person who suffers damage by acts falling under the above categories of private monopolisation, unreasonable restraint of trade or unfair trade practice is also entitled to claim compensation for damages.

The pharmaceutical industry as well as other industries are subject to the Anti-Monopoly Act.

The Japan Fair Trade Commission (JFTC) (www.jftc.go.jp/en) has regulatory power to conduct investigations and to issue orders under the Anti-Monopoly Act.

 
14. Briefly outline the competition issues that can arise on the licensing of technology and patents in a pharmaceutical context.

The JFTC has established the Guidelines for the Use of Intellectual Property under the Anti-Monopoly Act, which describe some examples and basic principles according to which the Anti-Monopoly Act applies to restrictions pertaining to the use of technology and licensing.

The Guidelines stipulate that restrictions, such as not to grant a licence, can be deemed as private monopolisation in case of deviation from the purpose of the intellectual property systems.

Further, in a case where entrepreneurs participating in a patent pool refuse to grant a license to any new entrant or any particular existing entrepreneurs without reasonable grounds, this restriction may fall under the exclusion of business activities of others and be a violation of the Anti-Monopoly Act.

The JFTC has also established Guidelines Concerning Administrative Guidance under the Anti-Monopoly Act, which prohibit some acts causing substantial restraint of competition in the market in all technological fields, including a pharmaceutical R&D project. According to the Guidelines, if a joint research and development (R&D) project substantially restricts competition in the relevant technology field or the relevant market, such a joint R&D project may be deemed as unreasonable restraint of trade.

 
15. Are there competition issues associated with the generic entry of pharmaceuticals in your jurisdiction?

An investment report published by the JFTC regarding distribution of drugs in Japan states that some acts may be deemed as unfair trade practice, such as:

  • If the originator pharmaceutical company has given wrong or inappropriate information about generic drugs.

  • If the pharmaceutical company has given wholesaler adverse dispositions, when the wholesaler has sold drugs for some price below the price which was determined by the pharmaceutical company.

This report was published by the JFTC and is available at www.jftc.go.jp/houdou/pressrelease/cyosa/cyosa-ryutsu/h18/06092702.files/06092702-hontai.pdf.

There have been no court precedents in Japan on the issue of reverse-payments (that is, payments that an originator company provides to a generic company to delay the generic drug entry).

 
16. Have abuse of dominance issues arisen in the pharmaceutical sector in your jurisdiction?

The JFTC has established some guidelines such as the Guidelines Concerning the Abuse of Dominance under the Antimonopoly Act, which stipulate basic principles of what acts may be deemed as an abuse of dominance. This applies in the pharmaceutical industry as well as other industries.

An act may be deemed as an abuse of dominance if an enterprise forces a counterparty to accept disadvantages by making use of a superior bargaining position unjustly in light of normal business practice. It depends on specific circumstances whether an act is deemed as falling under the above definition of an abuse of dominance. The Guidelines state that whether an enterprise has a superior bargaining position over the counterparty is determined by various factors, including the:

  • Need to trade with the enterprise.

  • Enterprise's market share.

  • Possibility of changing trading partner.

  • Importance of goods or services provided by the enterprise.

 
17. Have parallel imports of pharmaceuticals raised IP and competition law issues in your jurisdiction?

According to the Supreme Court's judgment of 1 July 1997, once the patent owner hands over patented products outside Japan, parallel imports of the products do not raise patent infringement issues, unless there is any specific agreement with an assignee for restricting the buyer and the restriction is expressly indicated on the patented products.

According to the Supreme Court's decision of 27 February 2003, parallel imports of genuine goods do not raise trade mark infringement issues. The three requirements of the parallel import of genuine goods are as follows:

  • The trade mark was lawfully affixed by the trade mark owner or a licensee.

  • The trade mark owner in the exporting country and in Japan are legally or financially deemed to be the same party, such that the trade mark on the parallel import goods is deemed to indicate the same origin of goods as the origin indicated by the registered trade mark in Japan.

  • The parallel import goods and products from the trade mark owner are not deemed to substantially differ in quality.

 
18. Does a patent or trade mark licence and payment of royalties under it to a foreign licensor have to be approved or accepted by a government or regulatory body? How is such a licence made enforceable?

Neither party to a licence agreement has to obtain any approval from any authorities. Once the licence agreement is executed, it can become enforceable without being approved or accepted by a government or regulatory body.

 

Contributor profiles

Yoshikazu Iwase, Partner

Anderson Mori & Tomotsune

T +81 3 6888 1069
F +81 3 6888 3069
E yoshikazu.iwase@amt-law.com
W www.amt-law.com

Professional qualifications. Japan, attorney-at-law, 1997; New York, attorney-at-law, 2004

Areas of practice. IP licensing and transactions; trade mark/design prosecution; copyright and entertainment; healthcare, pharmaceuticals and life sciences; IT and telecommunications law and regulation; IP infringement litigation/dispute resolution

Recent transactions

  • Representing clients in various industries, including the pharmaceutical industry, in patent infringement proceedings in district and appellate courts in Japan.
  • Representing clients in various industries, including the pharmaceutical industry, in trade mark and other IP infringement proceedings in district and appellate courts in Japan.
  • Advising clients in various industries, including the pharmaceutical industry, in patent and trade mark prosecutions.
  • Advising foreign companies on pharmaceutical regulations in Japan.

Languages. Japanese; English

Professional associations/memberships. Dai-ni Tokyo Bar Association; International Trade mark Association; Japan Trade mark Association; LES JAPAN

Publications

  • Life Sciences 2015 (Japan Chapter) (Getting the Deal Through, Law Business Research Limited) .
  • "Court cases regarding Intellectual Property," Civil Case Studies IV (Nihon Hyoron Sha, April 2012) .

Masayuki Yamanouchi, Associate

Anderson Mori & Tomotsune

T +81 3 6888 5669
F +81 3 6888 6669
E masayuki.yamanouchi@amt-law.com
W www.amt-law.com

Professional qualifications. Japan, attorney-at-law, 2008; New York, attorney-at-law, 2014

Areas of practice. IP licensing and transactions; healthcare, pharmaceuticals and life sciences; IP infringement litigation/dispute resolution

Recent transactions

  • Representing pharmaceutical companies in patent infringement proceedings in district and appellate courts in Japan.
  • Advising a Japanese diagnostic manufacturer on patent infringement proceedings in the US in co-operation with US counsel.
  • Advising foreign companies on pharmaceutical regulations in Japan.

Languages. Japanese; English

Professional associations/memberships. Dai-ni Tokyo Bar Association

Publications

  • "Increased Damages for Patent Infringement in Japan," Corporate Counsel February 24, 2014.
  • "Patent Term Extension," Jurist No. 1439 (April 2012).
  • "Recent changes concerning regulatory protections for pharmaceutical companies in Japan," Practical Law Life Sciences Guide 2010/11.

Yuta Oishi, Associate

Anderson Mori & Tomotsune

T +81 3 6888 1095
F +81 3 6888 3095
E yuta.oishi@amt-law.com
W www.amt-law.com

Professional qualifications. Japan, attorney-at-law, 2012

Areas of practice. IP licensing and transactions; healthcare, pharmaceuticals and life sciences; IP infringement litigation/dispute resolution

Recent transactions

  • Representing pharmaceutical companies in patent infringement proceedings in a district court in Japan.
  • Representing clients in opposition to registration proceedings in the JPO.
  • Advising clients regarding Japanese pharmaceutical regulatory matters.
  • Advising clients regarding licence agreements.

Languages. Japanese; English

Professional associations/memberships. Dai-ni Tokyo Bar Association


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