International relocation of children in the Russian Federation: overview

A Q&A guide to international relocation of children in the Russian Federation.

This Q&A gives a high level overview of matters relating to rights and responsibilities of parents, right to remove, procedure for relocation, dispute resolution in relocation matters, right to appeal, as well as child abduction.

This Q&A is part of the global guide to international child relocation law. For a full list of jurisdictional Q&As visit www.practicallaw.com/relocation-guide. To compare answers across multiple jurisdictions, visit the International Relocation country Q&A tool.

For an introduction to the guide, see the foreword to the International Relocation of Children Global Guide by Mr Justice Stephen Cobb.

Aminat Suleymanova, Irina Moroz and Alexander Gubin, AGA Partners Law Firm
Contents

Rights and responsibilities of parents

Legal responsibility for upbringing

1. What is the legal position of married and unmarried parents in relation to a child's upbringing, and is there a difference? Who has legal responsibility for a child's upbringing?

The rules relating to a child's upbringing established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Family Code of the Russian Federation (the Family Code) are based on the principle of equality. Both parents enjoy the same rights and discharge the same duties regardless of their gender, marital status and place of residence before and after the child's birth. Both parents are obliged by law to bring their child up, and are fully responsible for his or her education, physical, mental, spiritual and moral development, and health. The parents have to resolve all issues about the child's upbringing and education by mutual consent, based on the child's interests and taking into account the child's opinion.

The rights and duties of parents arise from the child's descent, as established by law. These duties only cease when the child reaches the age of 18 years, or the child acquires full legal capacity before he or she reaches 18 years old, such as if the child marries.

If a child is born of married persons and that marriage ends and the mother remarries, the mother's new spouse is recognised as the child's father either:

  • After 300 days from the dissolution of the first marriage or of it being annulled.

  • From the death of the mother's first spouse.

The fatherhood of a parent who is not married to the child's mother can be registered on the child's birth certificate by the registry office, on a joint application from both parents.

If a child is born of unmarried parents, and no joint application of the parents or of the child's father is filed with the registry office, the child's descent from a specific person can be established by a special court procedure. After that, the person who is recognised as the child's father is responsible with the mother for the child's upbringing. If this procedure is not implemented, the surname of the child's father in the register of births and the child's birth certificate is recorded as the mother's surname, together with the first name and patronymic of the child's father, according to her statement.

A father who is not registered on the child's birth certificate (that is, he is not recognised legally) fulfils his duties to the child voluntarily, which means he is not bound by law and is not liable for any negligence. To recognise a child's father legally, the mother can apply to a court for recognition of his fatherhood. The court has to take into account any proof which confirms the child's descent from the father, for instance a DNA test. If recognition is granted, the fatherhood is recorded in the birth certificate. As a result, the father becomes liable to fulfill his duties to the child. For example, alimony can be recovered from the father through court proceedings.

Rights and responsibilities post-separation

2. Do parents continue to share rights and responsibilities for the child following separation?

Following separation, the parents continue to share parental responsibilities for the child. The law obliges an estranged parent to fulfill his or her parental obligations regardless of the marital status and place of residence.

Since the interests of the child require a normal family relationship with the participation of both parents, and participation in the child's upbringing is considered a crucial right of an estranged parent, the law guarantees his or her unimpeded participation in the child's upbringing.

Residing apart from the child is not a ground for depriving a parent of the right to communicate with the child, and to take part in his or her upbringing and resolving of issues in the child's everyday life (Family Code). The parent with whom the child lives should not prevent the child from communicating with the other parent, unless such communication damages the child's physical and mental health, or his or her moral development.

The parent residing apart has the right to obtain information on the child from educational establishments and medical centres, as well as from other institutions.

 
3. How do parents generally share the care of children following separation?

Overview

According to general law, the parents should resolve issues related to their children's upbringing and education by mutual consent, according to the children's interests and taking into account the children's opinion.

To establish the method of a child's upbringing following separation, the parents usually conclude an agreement setting out how they can exercise their parental rights and duties. The Family Code stipulates that such an agreement must be concluded in writing. Notarial certification of the parents' agreement is not compulsory, but some lawyers strongly recommend this to protect the child's interests and for its enforcement. The agreement should consist of detailed provisions about form, place, frequency and duration of communication between the child and the parent who lives apart. It may also contain provisions about other aspects of the child's upbringing.

Custody and access

Following separation, the parents continue to share joint custody for the child, irrespective of the place of the child's residence.

Determination of the child's residence is crucial. The Civil Code states that a place where a citizen resides permanently or most of the time is the place of his or her residence. The place of residence of young minors, who have not reached 14 years of age, is usually the place of residence of their legal representatives (the parents, adopters or guardians).

According to the Family Code, the place of the child's residence, if the parents live separately, is established by agreement between the parents. In the absence of an agreement, a dispute between the parents has to be resolved in court, based on the children's interests and taking into account the children's opinion. The court has to consider the:

  • Child's affection for each of his or her parents and for his or her brothers and sisters.

  • Child's age.

  • Moral and other personal characteristics of the parents.

  • Relations between each parent and the child.

  • Possibility to create favourable conditions for the child's upbringing and development (for example, the parents' kind of activity and working schedule, their financial situation, and marital status).

The equality of parental responsibility does not always mean that the child will spend an equal amount of time with each parent. Children have a right to spend time with both their father and mother. A court will normally order that the child will reside with one parent, along with allocation of time to be spent with the other parent.

A parent living separately enjoys the legal right to periodically and systematically contact and visit his or her child at his or her place of residence, and can enforce this right in court.

Court orders

If parents cannot reach an agreement about determination of the place of the child's residence and the method of child upbringing, their dispute can be brought to a court with the participation of the guardianship and trusteeship body, on application of the parents (or one of them). A guardianship and trusteeship body is a state authority which primarily deals with issues of custody and guardianship, including securing the rights of minors (involving those with parents) and settlement of disputes between parents (disputes on the upbringing of children, and the establishment of the name of the child and others).

When determining the place of the child's residence, the court on request of either parent can issue an order establishing the child's temporary residence, for the period of the court proceedings.

When dealing with a dispute regarding the parents' participation in a child's upbringing, the court will consider:

  • The child's age.

  • The state of his or her health.

  • The extent of affection for each parent.

  • Other circumstances influencing his or her physical and psychological health and moral education.

On satisfying the claim, the court determines the exact communication (visitation) with a child for the applicant (time, place, duration, frequency, and so on).

In case of persistent non-compliance with the court decision by the parent who lives with the child, the parent residing apart from the child can request the court to pass the child over to him or her. The court when deciding such a claim will act in the child's interests and take into account the child's opinion.

The Family Code provides that exercising parental rights must exclude any methods that can negatively influence the child's physical and mental health or their moral development. These include contempt, cruelty, rudeness in treatment, humiliation of his or her human dignity, abuse or exploitation. Accordingly, the parent with whom the child lives has the right to prevent the child's communication with the other parent who breaks these rules. A dispute due to harmful behaviour of one parent is resolved by the court.

 

Relocation/right to remove

Overview

4. Are relocation cases a familiar feature of family law within your jurisdiction?

Relocation cases are a familiar feature of family law in Russia, for example:

  • Disputes about the determination of a child's residence.

  • Disputes declared by one parent concerning temporary or permanent relocation of a child to another country.

  • Abduction disputes concerning the return of a child, who was illegally relocated or retained in the Russian Federation or another country, and are pursued under international conventions (see Question 20).

 
5. When do relocation disputes tend to arise and what are the most common reasons for parents seeking to relocate?

There are various reasons that might trigger relocation disputes, in particular:

  • The parties cannot agree the place of child residence and so it has to be resolved by a court.

  • A parent refuses to give his or her consent for a child's visa, which prevents the child from living temporarily or permanently abroad.

  • A parent wants to prevent the child's relocation abroad (permanently or temporarily), because it might deprive him or her of the right to communicate with the child and for the child's safety.

  • A parent is seeking to return an illegally relocated or abducted child from another parent.

General principles and guidance

6. What is the legal position of a parent who seeks to relocate a child internationally?

To exit from the Russian Federation, an underage Russian citizen must generally be accompanied by at least one of his parents, adopted parents, trustees, or guardians (Russian Federal Law on the procedure for exiting and entering the Russian Federation 1996).

The child must also have a valid document that serves to identify him or her (a passport), but the consent of the other parent is not required by law.

If the child is not accompanied by such a person, he or she must have his or her passport and duly notarised consent of the parents for his or her exit, including an indication of the term of the exit and the state(s) he or she is going to visit.

If a parent opposes the exit of the child out of the Russian Federation and, for example, disagrees with the issue of the child's visa, the possibility of his or her departure from the Russian Federation is resolved in court.

 
7. What are the legal principles applicable to relocation disputes?

A court must apply the general legal principles in all cases regarding a child's relocation. While resolving a relocation dispute, the court must take into account important factors such as:

  • The child's interests.

  • The child's opinion.

  • The child's age.

  • The state of the child's physical and mental health.

  • Moral and other personal features of the parents.

  • Relations between each parent and the child.

  • The reasons for the child travelling abroad.

  • The possibility to create favourable conditions for the child's upbringing and development abroad.

The court resolving a relocation dispute must secure the participation of the guardianship and trusteeship body in all cases, irrespective of who initiates a legal dispute.

To clarify specific issues related to the case, the court can request the parties to submit evidence about the child's living conditions abroad and in the Russian Federation.

A parent who is dissatisfied with the court decision has the right of appeal (see Question 18).

 
8. Do the principles applicable to relocation disputes differ in cases where the parent is seeking to relocate temporarily rather than permanently?

Russian legislation has no substantial differences in procedure for disputes between parents concerning a child's international relocation for permanent residence and temporary relocation. All principles applicable to relocation disputes are the same for those cases.

 
9. Have the courts in your jurisdiction provided any guidance to help the judges to apply the principles correctly?

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is responsible for providing instructions and clarifications on certain issues relating to application of the law.

The Decree of the Plenum of the Supreme Court 1998 contains guidance to apply legislation to disputes relating to a child's upbringing. It aims to develop a uniform approach to the application of the Family Code by judges.

The Legal practice review by the Presidium of the Supreme Court in 2007 relates to disputes about a child's upbringing. Such reviews provide guidance to the lower courts.

 
10. What is the perception of the public and/or legal profession of the way in which relocation disputes are determined by the courts?

There is widespread opinion that the lack of restrictions on a parent's discretion relating to a child's international relocation (for example, there is no need for preliminary approval from the other parent) (see Question 6) causes child relocation without the consent of the other parent and rising numbers of relocation disputes. The current consensus among lawyers is that significant changes in this respect are required.

On the other hand, there is sufficient protection of the child's right to travel freely and leave the Russian Federation (established by Article 27 of the Constitution) when one parent groundlessly refuses to give notarised approval for the child's visa application (when required by a foreign state) or simply avoids participating in the issue (see Question 12). The right of a child to travel freely abroad, when one parent disagrees with it, can be protected by submitting a claim to stop interference by the other parent in the child's leaving abroad.

In relation to legal practice concerning determination of a child's place of residence (which may influence the court's resolution of relocation disputes), the courts tend to give mothers preference over fathers in these disputes.

 
11. Where are the most common places to which parents seek to relocate with children from your jurisdiction?

Traditionally the most common places of relocation are countries attractive to emigrants from Russia, such as the US, Canada, and European countries.

Procedure for relocation

12. What is the legal procedure for seeking to relocate?

Procedure

There is no special legal procedure for relocating children within Russia or internationally. The Russian Federal Law on the procedure for exiting and entering the Russian Federation applies (see Question 6).

The law does not indicate any substantial difference depending on temporary or permanent relocation. It provides that the general responsibility for the life and health of underage children who exit the Russian Federation, and the protection of their rights and lawful interests outside the Russian Federation, is entrusted to their parents, adopted parents, trustees, and guardians.

The consent of the other parent is only required for a visa (when required by the foreign state) for the child to travel abroad. If the other parent refuses to give this consent, the dispute can be brought to court. The court will consider the reasons, duration and financial resources for the child to travel abroad. If it satisfied that there are no reasons to prohibit the child from leaving, the court will order the other parent to execute notarised consent for the child's visa and not to impede the child from travelling abroad.

Duration of procedure

Relocation cases, like other civil cases, must be resolved by the first instance court within two months after application. However in practice the time period for legal proceedings may be considerably longer. The duration of the proceedings will generally depend on the position of the opposing party.

The Civil Procedural Code of the Russian Federation 2002 states that an application to return a child who was abducted must be resolved by the first instance court within 42 days.

 
13. What steps can be taken to prevent a parent removing the child from the jurisdiction without the agreement of the other parent or the court's permission?

The Federal Law on the procedure for exiting and entering the Russian Federation establishes a procedure for a parent to secure his or her parental rights and safeguard the child's presence in Russia. An application must be submitted to the Federal Migration Service, the border security office, or to the diplomatic missions or consular office of the Russian Federation in the foreign country (if the applicant lives abroad). The Federal Migration Service determines the procedure when it considers such applications. When such an application is filed, the child's exit from the Russian Federation without the approval of the other parent is restricted.

If a parent, stepparent, tutor or guardian declares his or her opposition to the exit of the child out of the Russian Federation, the child's exit must be resolved in court.

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)

14. Are methods of ADR used to help to resolve relocation disputes in your jurisdiction? How effective are these ADR methods in such cases?

The 2014 Conception of State Policy with Regard to Family Affairs in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 aims to create a mediation institution for family disputes, including over a child's residence and relocation.

Currently there are several institutions to promote government policy in mediation. They work with the Department of State Policy in Children's Rights Protection in the Ministry of Education and Science, the central body for implementation of The Hague Child Abduction Convention in the Russian Federation (see Question 20). For instance, there is the non-profit organisation Scientific and Methodological Center for Mediation and Law, based in Moscow. It was established to develop and promote mediation, and to integrate it into Russian legislation. Its activity includes mediation of child relocation disputes.

The use of mediation in Russia is not very common because of the:

  • Underdeveloped legal basis in this area.

  • Lack of initiatives from official bodies.

  • Lack of information about alternative dispute resolution for the general public.

  • Relatively cheap costs of lawsuits.

  • Weak status of a mediation agreement (no enforcement procedures).

Sometimes, a parent may deliberately use mediation to delay a court decision where such a case would be resolved faster. However, practitioners suggest that mediation could be used effectively in resolving family conflicts, if the qualification of mediators is improved and measures are introduced to regulate mediation procedures more efficiently.

Factors in relocation cases

 
15. What significance do the child's wishes and feelings have in a relocation case and how are these ascertained/presented?

A court while deciding a case on child residence, including international relocation, must consider not only the child's age or interests, but also his or her opinion on the matter (if he or she has reached the age of ten years old) (Family Code).

The Decree of the Plenum of the Supreme Court 1998 (Decree) provides official clarification of this rule. It says that a court resolving a relocation dispute can ask the child for his or her opinion, taking into consideration the child's age and level of personal development. The aim is to understand the child's attitude to his or her future place of residence. If the court decides to hear the child's opinion, it must also find out the position of the guardianship and trusteeship body participating in the case, to avoid possible adverse effects of the procedure on the child.

The Decree also provides some guidance to lower courts on the procedure to receive the child's opinion, including that an expert in child matters (pedagogue) must participate in the questioning.

 
16. Are there any differences between geographical regions/areas in your jurisdiction in the way in which relocation disputes are determined by the courts?

Under the Constitution, family legislation is under the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and its constituent entities (the federal subjects of the Russian Federation). Family legislation consists of the Family Code and other federal laws passed under it, and also laws of the subjects of the Russian Federation.

The principles and norms of family law in the laws of the subjects of the Russian Federation have to correspond to the Family Code. They cannot conflict with the federal legislation. Therefore, there are no substantial differences in legislation across the Russian Federation. This also applies to national court practice. Therefore, most relocation disputes are determined in a uniform manner by the courts in different regions.

Offers of security

17. Do offers of security for the return of the child to spend time with the other parent feature in relocation disputes in your jurisdiction? What form do these take?

The Family Code does not establish any special form of security for the return of a child. However, when a dispute is brought to a court, the Civil Procedural Code establishes some interim court measures to secure future enforcement of a court decision, on application from a party to the case. Securing of a claim is admissible at any stage of the case, if execution of the court's final decision may be subsequently impossible due to the failure to secure it.

In case of illegal relocation, the court can prohibit the defendant from changing the child's temporary residence, or restrict the child's exit from the Russian Federation until resolution of the case (Civil Procedural Code.

Rights of appeal

 
18. If a parent is dissatisfied with the decision made by a court in a relocation case, does the parent have a right to appeal?

A parent who is dissatisfied with a court's decision has a right to appeal to a court of higher jurisdiction (Civil Procedural Code). Decisions of a court of first instance that have not entered into legal force can be appealed. The right of appeal against a court decision is held by the parties and other persons participating in a case.

In case of international relocation, the appeal must be filed within ten days from the decision by the first instance court. This appeal must be resolved no later than one month from the day of submission.

The appeal court has to reconsider a case using the arguments stated in the appeal, appellate presentation, or counterarguments to an appeal or appellate presentation. The appeal court must consider the initial evidence in the case, as well as additional adduced evidence. The appeal court can examine the decision of the first instance court in full. A ruling of the appeal court enters into legal force from the date of its adoption.

If the appeal is dismissed, the dissatisfied applicant can appeal judicial decisions in force once again in a court of higher instance (cassation), within six months from the date of the decision entering into legal force.

The decision can also be reviewed by the Presidium of the Supreme Court, on an appeal of persons participating in the case and other persons, if their rights and legitimate interests have been violated by these judicial decisions.

Appeal courts approach relocation cases following guidance in the Decree of the Plenum of the Supreme Court 1998,as well as periodic reviews issued by the higher courts.

 

Abduction

Overview/domestic and international law

19. What is the position if a parent removes a child from your jurisdiction to another without the consent of the other parent and/or permission from the court?

Russian legislation does not require the consent of a parent to the child's travel abroad with the other parent (see Question 6).

If a parent removes a child from the Russian Federation, and the other parent disagrees with the relocation, he or she can file an application to return the child to the Central Authority of the Russian Federation under the HCCH Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction 1980 (Hague Child Abduction Convention) (see Question 20).

 
20. Is your jurisdiction a signatory to any relevant treaty or convention concerning child abduction?

The Russian Federation is a signatory to the:

  • Hague Child Abduction Convention.

  • Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children 1996 (Hague Convention 1996).

The Department of State Policy in Children's Rights Protection of the Ministry of Education and Science is the Central Authority under the Hague Child Abduction Convention. Its primary functions are to determine the location of an illegally relocated or illegally retained child, and to apply legal measures for his or her return. It does not provide free legal advice to the applicant and does not represent his or her interests in court.

A new federal law was adopted on 5 May 2014. It made changes to a number of laws, including the Family Code and the Civil Procedural Code, to implement the Hague Child Abduction Convention. The Civil Procedural Code was amended by adding a new chapter regulating proceedings on a child's return under the Hague Child Abduction Convention.

The Hague Convention 1996 came into force on 1 June 2013. Under the Hague Convention, decisions of foreign courts about the return of abducted or retained children can be enforced in Russia.

Factors

21. Are there any defences which could be raised by a parent to attempt to avoid the child's return?

The defences which could be raised by a parent to avoid the child's return are provided in the Hague Child Abduction Convention, including that:

  • The person, institution or other body taking care of the child was not actually exercising custody rights at the time of removal or retention, or had consented to or subsequently acquiesced to the child's removal or retention.

  • There is a grave risk that his or her return would expose the child to physical or psychological harm, or otherwise place the child in an intolerable situation.

  • The child is now settled in its new environment, and the proceedings are commenced after one year from the child's abduction or illegal retention.

The ease or difficulty of proving the above defences depends on the actual circumstances and evidence in each case.

 
22. How are the child's wishes/feelings ascertained or presented in an abduction case?

The child's objection against return is one ground for refusing an application to return the child, if the child has reached such an age and degree of maturity at which it is necessary to take into account his or her opinion (Article 13, Hague Child Abduction Convention). The Family Code establishes that a court should consider a child's opinion on the matter during the proceedings, if he or she has reached the age of ten years old (see Question 15).

 

Reform

23. Are any legal developments in progress or planned in the law which may affect the law or practice in relocation or abduction cases?

There are some difficulties in implementation of The Hague Child Abduction Convention in the Russian Federation, related to differences in terminology in the Convention and Russian legislation. Some changes to Russian legislation are required to overcome these obstacles and reach a higher level of Hague Child Abduction Convention application and protection of child rights. There are some major initiatives to amend the Civil Procedural Code, the Federal Law on enforcement proceedings and other federal laws in line with the Hague Child Abduction Convention.

The Ministry of Education and Science has drafted a federal law to change various items of legislation regulating international child abduction and illegal retention. This draft law will support the Hague Child Abduction Convention and its implementation. For example, it provides measures to investigate a child's location and specific procedures to enforce court orders to return children. It also includes some measures for settlement of disputes by mediation.

 

Online resources

Official portal of legal information, Russian Federation

W http://pravo.gov.ru ( www.practicallaw.com/9-555-2708)

Description. An official government information resource website containing up-to-date legal information. Available in Russian only.



Contributor profiles

Aminat Suleymanova, Managing Partner

AGA Partners Law Firm

T +38 044 237 79 33/43
F +38 044 237 79 33/43
E suleymanova@agalawyers.org
W www.agalawyers.org

Professional qualifications. Ukraine, Barrister

Areas of practice. Private client; litigation; family law; European law on human rights; selected by Family Law Experts as the 2015 Family Lawyer of the Year for Kiev.

Recent cases

  • Advising on different legal issues regarding child custody in international family law cases, including the Russian Federation.

  • Legal support of UK and US divorce proceedings in Ukraine.

  • Full legal support of a dispute about the place of residence of a child between parents residing separately, and immediate removal of the child from the father's custody. Effective representation of the mother's interests resulted in a court decision for the residence of the child at the mother's place. This was a pro bono case.

Languages. Ukrainian, English, Russian

Professional associations/memberships.

  • International Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (IAML).

  • International Bar Association.

  • Kyiv City Bar Association.

  • Ukrainian Bar Association (UBA).

  • National Association of Advocates of Ukraine.

Publications.

  • Splitting the assets: why jurisdiction in divorce matters, James Stewart and Aminat Suleymanova, Spectrum, issue 2, November 2008.

  • Ukraine chapter, Thomson Reuters Family Law Global Guide, 2015.

Irina Moroz, Partner

AGA Partners Law Firm

T +38 044 237 79 33/43
F +38 044 237 79 33/43
E moroz@agalawyers.org
W www.agalawyers.org

Professional qualifications. Ukraine, Barrister

Areas of practice. Private client; litigation; family law; European law on human rights.

Recent cases.

  • Acting as an expert on a recent family law case involving the Ukrainian and Czech jurisdictions. Representing the interests of a mother before Ukrainian care and custody authorities, the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine, and the courts.

  • Legal advice on surrogacy agreements.

  • Providing legal services to French citizens concerning the divorce proceedings.

  • Preparing a legal expert report for UK courts, supporting the parents' application for a parental order.

  • Legal support on a pro bono basis in a relocation case involving the Russian and Ukrainian jurisdictions.

Languages. Ukrainian, English, Russian

Professional associations/memberships.

  • International Bar Association.

  • Ukrainian Bar Association (UBA).

  • National Association of Advocates of Ukraine.

Publications.

  • Ukraine chapter, Thomson Reuters Family Law Global Guide, 2015.

  • Binding Alimony, Yuridicheskaya praktika, August 2014.

  • Divorce between foreigners in Ukraine – myth or reality, Yuridichna gazeta, August 2015.

Alexander Gubin, Associate Lawyer

AGA Partners Law Firm

T +38 044 237 79 33/43
F +38 044 237 79 33/43
E gubin@agalawyers.org
W www.agalawyers.org

Professional qualifications. Ukraine, Barrister's assistant

Areas of practice. Private client; litigation; family law; European law on human rights.

Non-professional qualifications. Higher education in philology (Arabic and English languages), Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 2005.

Recent transactions.

  • Acting as a mediator and expert in a recent abduction case involving the Ukrainian and US jurisdictions.

  • Provided legal advice on spouses' property division and split of assets. Drawing up the maintenance agreement.

  • Consultations on international family law issues for non-residents.

  • Taking part in preparing a maintenance agreement involving multiple jurisdictions, including Ukraine and the Russian Federation.

Languages. Ukrainian, English, Russian

Professional associations/memberships.

  • National Association of Advocates of Ukraine.

  • Ukrainian Bar Association (UBA).


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