Enforcement of judgments in Turkey: overview

A Q&A guide to enforcement of judgments law in Turkey.

The Q&A gives a structured overview of key practical issues concerning enforcement of judgments in this jurisdiction, including definitions and preliminary proceedings; applicable regulations/conventions; pending appeals; enforceable judgments; conditions for recognition and enforcement; proper service; public policy; provisional remedies; interest; actual enforcement; enforcing foreign judgments; enforcement proceedings; formalities; and any reform proposals.

This Q&A is part of the Enforcement of Judgments and Arbitral Awards in Commercial Matters Global Guide.

Feyzi Erçin and Sevgi Aydost, Erçin Bilgin Bektaşoğlu Law Firm
Contents

Enforcement of judgments: domestic and foreign

Definitions and preliminary proceedings

1. What is the definition of judgment in your jurisdiction for the purpose of enforcement proceedings?

Domestic

Under the Turkish Civil Procedure Code, a "judgment" is a final decision granted by a judge or a court.

International

In an international context, "judgment" means a final decision that is rendered by a foreign court. Foreign judgments can be recognised and enforced in Turkey under the International Private and Procedural Code No. 5718.

 
2. Is it required that a judgment is final and has conclusive effect, or are decisions in preliminary/provisional/interim proceedings recognised and enforceable?

Domestic judgments

Final decisions. Judgements must be final and conclusive.

Preliminary/provisional proceedings. Under Turkish law, interim measures that are ordered by the court in main proceedings, such as precautionary attachments, are enforceable.

Foreign judgments

Final decisions. Under the Turkish International Private and Procedural Code judgment must be final and have conclusive effect to be enforced. The finalisation process is determined according to the law of the state where judgment was granted.

Preliminary/provisional proceedings. Preliminary/provisional proceedings are not final; therefore, they are not recognised or enforced.

Applicable regulations/conventions

3. What conventions and regulations is your jurisdiction a contracting party to?

Turkey is a contracting party to various reciprocal and multilateral treaties in relation to recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments including:

  • Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions concerning Maintenance Allowance Obligations 1973.

  • Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions concerning the Matrimonial Bond 1975.

  • European Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions concerning Custody of Children and on Restoration of Custody of Children 1980.

 
4. Will enforcement be automatically refused if service of the proceedings did not conform to any applicable requirements of international treaties/regulations?

Under the Turkish International Private and Procedural Code (IPPC) service must conform to the rules of the state where the judgment is rendered (Article 54, IPPC).

Turkey is a party to the HCCH Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters 1965 (Hague Service Convention).

Article 10 of the Hague Service Convention acknowledges other means of effectuating service, that is, party-to-party service, court-to-court service and interested person-to-judicial officers, officials or other interested persons service. These methods of service are allowed only if the defendant's state does not object to their use. Paragraph 5 of Turkey's Declaration of Accession to the Hague Service Convention declares that it is opposed to using the methods of service listed in Article 10 of the Hague Service Convention.

However, under the convention, if service is effected by other means and if the enforcing court concludes that this service by other means limited the defendant's right of defence and fair trial, it can reject enforcement on the grounds of public order. Where the service procedure adversely affects the defendant's rights, it can be accepted by the enforcing court as a violation of public policy. In each case the means of service is reviewed separately. As such, even if the service does not conform to the requirements of the Hague Service Convention, it will not automatically result in enforcement of the judgment being denied.

Pending appeals

5. What is the effect of pending appeal proceedings where the decision is granted?

Domestic judgments

Judgments are final and enforceable even if there are pending appeals; however, if no security is posted then the judgment is not final and enforceable. Foreign judgments are the only exception (see below, Foreign judgments).

Foreign judgments

If there are pending appeal proceedings in a foreign state where the decision was granted, and according to the law of that state the decision has not become final, then the judgment is not enforced until all remedies including the appeal are exhausted and the judgment is final.

Enforceable judgments

6. What types of judgments in commercial matters are enforceable?

Domestic judgments

Money judgments/awards. These are enforceable.

Judgments ordering or prohibiting the doing of acts/injunctions. These are enforceable.

Declaratory judgments. These are not enforceable.

Default judgments. These are enforceable.

Judgments made without notice (ex parte) awards. These are enforceable.

Foreign decisions granting provisional measures. These are not enforceable.

Foreign enforcement orders/( pre-judgment) attachment orders/ awards. These are not enforceable.

Other judgments. None applicable.

Foreign judgments

Money judgments/awards. These are enforceable.

Judgments ordering or prohibiting the doing of acts/injunctions. These are enforceable.

Declaratory judgments. These are not enforceable.

Default judgments. These are not enforceable.

Judgments made without notice (ex parte)/awards. These are enforceable.

Foreign decisions granting provisional measures. These are not enforceable.

Foreign enforcement orders/( pre-judgment) attachment orders/awards. These are not enforceable.

Other judgments. None applicable.

 
7. Are any class of judgments excluded from recognition and enforcement?

Domestic judgments

Under Turkish law, no class of domestic judgments is excluded from enforcement.

Foreign judgments

The following classes of foreign judgments are excluded from recognition and enforcement:

  • Criminal Court judgments (with the exception of judgments in respect of individual rights).

  • Administrative Court judgments.

  • Cartel and patent law judgments.

  • Labour law judgments (with the exception of judgments and substantive law and social security).

Conditions for recognition and enforcement

8. What are the conditions to enforce and recognise a judgment?

Domestic judgments

There is no requirement of recognition and enforcement for domestic judgments. Domestic judgments are enforceable when the judgment creditor applies for enforcing.

Limitation period. The limitation period for actions to enforce a domestic judgments is ten years from the date the judgment was finalised (Article 39, Turkish Bankruptcy and Enforcement Law).

Other conditions. None applicable.

Foreign judgments

The conditions for recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are detailed in the Turkish International Private and Procedural Code (IPPC) (Article 50 and following).

Court/arbitral court had jurisdiction. To be recognised and enforced the foreign judgment:

  • Must have been rendered in a matter that does not fall under the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of Turkey (Article 54, IPPC).

  • Must not have been rendered by the court of a state that has no real connection with the parties or the subject matter (exorbitant jurisdiction), if the defendant has objected to the jurisdiction of the court.

The Supreme Court of Appeal has stated in various judgments that Turkish courts have exclusive jurisdiction in disputes related to immovable property in Turkey. Other examples of exclusive jurisdiction are disputes related to employment and consumer contracts.

Defendant had proper notice of the proceedings. The conditions are that:

  • The party against whom enforcement is sought must have been duly served of the action according to the law of the state where the judgment was rendered (Article 54, IPPC).

  • The judgment must not have been given in his absence.

The enforcing court can only investigate these conditions regarding notice if the defendant raises an objection with regard to the issue of proper notice.

No incompatibility with public policy. Under Article 54 of the IPPC, the foreign judgment will not be enforced if it is explicitly contrary to Turkish public order. It is at the total discretion of the enforcing court as to whether or not the foreign judgment explicitly violates Turkish public order. Foreign judgments in commercial law matters are usually not accepted if they are against public order; in human rights and family law cases public order is usually observed.

Reciprocity. Reciprocity is necessary between Turkey and the state where the judgment was rendered (Article 54, IPPC) and for it to exist, one of the following must apply:

  • A reciprocity agreement between Turkey and the foreign country where the judgment was rendered.

  • A provision of law in the legislation of the state where the judgment was rendered, allowing the recognition and enforcement of a judgment rendered by Turkish courts.

  • An established practice enabling the enforcement in the respective foreign country of judgments rendered by the Turkish courts.

No conflicting domestic or foreign judgment exists. In terms of the enforcement of foreign judgments, it is immaterial whether or not there are conflicting domestic or foreign judgments regarding the merits of the case. However, the Turkish courts may take into consideration previous judgments of the Supreme Court of Appeal rendered in similar cases, in order to find out whether or not conditions under Article 54 of the IPPC were fulfilled.

Judgment/award is final as to its effects. The foreign judgment must have become final and enforceable in accordance with the law of the court where the judgment was rendered (Articles 50 and 53, IPPC). The foreign court judgment must be finalised for both the substantial and procedural aspects.

Limitation period. The time bar for applying for enforcement of a judgment is subject to the law of the state where the judgment was granted. The Turkish Supreme Court of Appeal has stated in various judgments that the time bar is the date the judgment granted is finalised by the foreign court.

Other conditions. None applicable.

 
9. What are the grounds for refusing recognition and enforcement?

Domestic judgments

See Question 8.

Foreign judgments

For foreign judgments, Turkish courts must examine the refusal grounds mentioned under Articles 50, 53 and 54 of the Turkish International Private and Procedural Code ex officio, with the exception of exorbitant jurisdiction and proper notice. Turkish courts can examine these two conditions only on the objection of the party against whom enforcement of the foreign judgment is sought. Absence of reciprocity, exclusive jurisdiction of Turkish courts and contradiction with Turkish public order are grounds for refusing enforcement, which must be examined ex officio by the enforcement court.

Proper service

10. Does the enforcing court review service of the proceedings? Are there any conditions regarding service of the proceedings that must have been satisfied/complied with?

Domestic judgments

See Question 8.

Foreign judgments

See Question 4.

Public policy

11. Does public policy include matters of substantive law?

Public policy was described by the Supreme Court as "legal, moral and conscientious notions to be complied with for the continuation of peaceful and compatible life of society". Accordingly, it is not limited to procedural deficiencies; it also encompasses matters of substantive law. Violation of public policy by a foreign judgment must be explicit (Article 54, Turkish International Private and Procedural Code).

 
12. Can the application of a law that is different to that applicable under the choice of law rules of the enforcing court be attacked on the basis of public policy?

Turkish courts do not consider the application of the law under choice of law rules when reviewing the judgment on the grounds of public policy. They consider whether or not the enforcement of the foreign judgment will cause an irreversible incompatibility with Turkish public order.

 
13. In what circumstances and against which judgments has the principle of public policy generally been applied?

The principle of public policy has generally been applied in the following judgments:

  • Judgments contrary to basic human rights, which are secured under the precedents of the European Court of Human Rights.

  • Judgments limiting the defendant's right of fair trial and defence.

In this respect, the due service of proceedings to the defendant is of particular importance. Several judgments were also considered against public order with regards family law matters (such as adoption and parental right matters).

Principles of public policy are also considered in judgments rendered in class actions in the US. Turkish procedural law system does not recognise a lawsuit in which a person whose interests is or may be affected does not have an opportunity to protect his interests by appearing personally or through a selected representative.

Pre-trial discovery proceedings in US procedural law are also contrary to Turkish procedural law (in these proceedings the courts are ex officio entitled to review and investigate evidence). Accordingly, judgments obtained through pre-trial proceedings cannot be enforced in Turkey.

Provisional remedies

14. Is it possible to apply for provisional measures from the enforcing court pending the enforcement proceedings?

Domestic judgments

It is possible to request the enforcing court for provisional measures during enforcement proceedings. Precautionary attachments are one of the provisional measures ordered by the enforcing court.

Foreign judgments

It is possible to request the enforcing court for provisional measures before enforcement proceedings or when applying for enforcement. The remedy to obtain security for a claim is arrest. However, non-pecuniary claims must be secured by way of an injunction.

Interest

15. Is the judgment creditor entitled to interest? If so, on what basis is it calculated?

Domestic judgments

Domestic judgment creditors are entitled to interest. The Turkish Code of Obligations and the Turkish Commercial Code provide calculation methods for proportion of interest. The proportion of interest is therefore calculated according to the relevant legislation. In the absence of any contractual term, the current statutory rate of interest is currently 9%.

Foreign judgments

A judgment creditor is entitled to interest in the enforcement of the foreign judgment (Article 57, Turkish International Private and Procedural Code). In the enforcement of foreign judgments, the court adopts the basis used for the calculation of interest and the limits of the interest in the judgment to be enforced.

Actual enforcement

16. What is the enforcement procedure when a declaration of enforceability is granted?

Domestic judgments

Foreign judgments are enforced in accordance with the standard enforcement procedure of domestic judgments, as regulated in Article 32 of the Bankruptcy and Enforcement Law (see below, Foreign judgments).

Foreign judgments

Following a declaration of enforceability of the foreign judgment it is treated, for the purposes of Turkish law, as equivalent to a Turkish court judgment (Article 57/I, Turkish International Private and Procedural Code) and is enforced in accordance with the standard enforcement procedure of judgments as regulated in Article 32 of the Bankruptcy and Enforcement Law.

An applicant holding a declaration of enforceability must commence a standard enforcement procedure of judgments in an enforcement office of its choice by submitting the declaration of enforceability together with the apostilled and notarised foreign judgment and its notarised Turkish translation. A payment order for the amount as ruled in the foreign judgment will then be sent to the defendant. The declaration of enforceability and a notarised Turkish translation of the foreign judgment must be annexed to the payment order. In this phase of the enforcement procedure, the applicant is referred to as the creditor and the defendant as the debtor.

 
17. Can defendants oppose the enforcement procedure, and if so, on what grounds/defences?

Domestic judgments

Debtors can file objections to payment orders within seven days of the day after receiving the payment order (Article 32, Bankruptcy and Enforcement Law). The two possible grounds of objection are that the claim subject to the judgment has either been rescheduled or redeemed.

If no objection is made within the objection period, the payment order becomes definite. The creditor can then apply to the enforcement office to obtain a writ of attachment to seize the debtor's assets. However, if the debtor files an objection to the payment order and it is not overruled by the enforcement office, the enforcement procedure is suspended until it is decided by a court of law, on application of the creditor, that the creditor can proceed with enforcement of the judgment.

If the enforcement office applies the wrong rules of law, or the officer's actions are contrary to law, the defendant can lodge a complaint against the enforcement procedure in the Court of Enforcement and demand annulment of the enforcement procedure or the actions of the enforcement office.

Foreign judgments

The enforcement procedure for foreign judgments is the same as for domestic judgments (see above, Domestic judgments).

 

Enforcing foreign judgments

Jurisdiction

18. Is the enforcing court entitled to consider the grounds on which the foreign court assumed jurisdiction (and if so, on what jurisdictional grounds can enforcement be refused)?

Under the Turkish International Private and Procedural Code (IPPC), the enforcing court can consider the grounds on which the foreign court assumed jurisdiction. If the foreign court decision concerns a matter where Turkish courts have exclusive jurisdiction it cannot be enforced under Turkish law. Additionally, jurisdiction grounds are evaluated as exorbitant bases and are specifically used to extend the national courts' jurisdiction to an international level and protect the courts' nationals. It is generally accepted under Turkish law that jurisdiction grounds that violate the right to a fair trial are exorbitant. If the enforcing court evaluates the grounds as exorbitant it can refuse to enforce the judgment.

 
19. If the foreign court assumed jurisdiction on the basis of an exorbitant ground of jurisdiction, can the enforcing court review the judgment on that ground?

Exorbitant ground of jurisdiction

Under the Turkish International Private and Procedural Code (IPPC), Turkish courts cannot review judgments on the basis of an exorbitant ground of jurisdiction unless the defendant against whom enforcement of the foreign judgment is sought objects to the exorbitant jurisdiction of the foreign court (Article 54, IPPC). If the defendant objects, the Turkish court must investigate whether or not the foreign court's jurisdiction can be accepted as exorbitant.

Voluntary acknowledgement

If the defendant's rights to a fair trial and to defence are violated as a result of exorbitant jurisdiction of the foreign court, Turkish courts can reject enforcement on the basis of public policy. However, as the defendant voluntarily appeared in the proceedings he is not likely to be able to argue that these rights were violated.

Enforcement proceedings

20. Is the enforcement of a foreign judgment subject to formal proceedings or simplified procedures?

Enforcement of a foreign judgment is subject to formal proceedings, but the procedure is simplified.

The Turkish procedural system consists of two types of litigation processes, one of which is a simple method used for certain types of cases requiring a more swift procedure. Enforcement actions belong to this category (Articles 55 and 61, Turkish International Private and Procedural Code (IPPC)). The rules for these procedures are contained in Articles 316 to 322 of the IPPC.

An action must be replied to within two weeks and documents that are relied on must be filed within the same time limit. For actions pending on a simplified procedure, courts now even have the power to enter into judgment based on documents alone. Courts must enter into judgment within at most three hearings, and the period between these hearings must not exceed one month (Article 320, IPPC). However, where necessary, the law enables the judge to extend that period.

 
21. Are applicants required to institute a new action on the judgment in the form of main proceedings instead of making an application for enforcement based on the judgment?

An action for enforcement of a foreign judgment or arbitration award does not require the applicant to institute a new action on the original cause of action in the form of main proceedings. In order to reach a judgment on enforcement, the court will only need to consider the conditions for recognition and enforcement. The action to be filed will not be based on the original cause of action.

The only exception to the above is an application for an injunction order. A foreign injunction order cannot be enforced. Therefore, where an application is to be made to obtain an injunction order, the judgment can be used only as supporting evidence.

 
22. What is the general outline of enforcement proceedings?

Appointing counsel

Under Turkish law, any action can only be filed either by the party itself or by an attorney. The use of any other agent is prohibited. Therefore, if an attorney is not used, the applicant, or if it is a corporation, then the official representative of the applicant's corporation, must personally make the application. A power of attorney is required to file the action.

Security for costs

In principle, cautio judicatum solvi is required under Turkish law, meaning that any foreign applicant must lodge security for the costs of the proceedings. However, Turkey is party to the HCCH Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters 1965 (Hague Service Convention). As such, citizens and corporations of Albania, Argentina, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Montenegro, Morocco, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine are exempt from such requirement. Furthermore, Turkey has bilateral treaties with many countries and therefore, in most cases, this requirement can be avoided. Examples of such bilateral treaties include those with Bulgaria, Czech Republic, UK, Iran, Iraq, Hungary, Norway, Pakistan, Romania, Tunis, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

Jurisdiction and venue

Under the general rule of civil procedure in Turkey, the court with jurisdiction is the court of the defendant's residence. If this residence does not exist, then the action can be filed before the civil courts of Istanbul, Ankara or Izmir. If the defendant has assets in Turkey, jurisdiction of the courts at the place of the assets can also be invoked under certain conditions. Agreements on jurisdiction are respected by Turkish courts.

Adversarial or without notice (ex parte)

Enforcement proceedings are adversarial. They will become ex parte only if service is properly made on the defendant and the defendant does not appear in the proceedings.

Timing

Enforcement proceedings take about six months from the day the action is filed. However, an appeal from the judgment is bound to delay this. Under Turkish law, any judgment is immediately enforceable. Judgment can be stayed for the duration of an appeal only if security is put up. However, an action for the enforcement of a foreign judgment or arbitration award is one of the few exceptions to this and these judgments are not enforceable unless the Supreme Court of Appeals has upheld the judgment.

Fees

Enforcement actions used to be subject to the same court tax as recovery actions, which is currently 6.83% of the claim amount. However, this approach was recently abolished, as enforcement actions are not actually recovery actions. Provided that the courts apply the rules correctly, the court tax to be paid is a fixed small sum. Some scholars have stated that the court tax should be based on the nature of the award. If the award is for a payment and recovery to be made, then, as under Turkish procedural rules a monetary claim requires a court tax based on a percentage of the claim, the enforcement action should replicate this result. However, according to the same scholars' view, if the judgment or award to be enforced does not relate to the recovery of money, then the fixed small sum should be the court tax. In practice, some courts' clerks prefer to apply the 6.83% when they can.

Appeals

Enforcement decisions are subject to appeal proceedings, which can be instituted by either party.

 
23. Can the enforcing court review the foreign judgment as to its substance if all formalities were complied with and if the judgment meets all requirements?

Under Turkish law, the principle is that if all formalities are complied with and if the judgment meets all requirements, the court has no power to review the foreign judgment (revision au fond). In practice, defendants frequently argue that the foreign judgment was rendered by biased judges or arbitrators. These arguments almost always fail. However, in some cases, Turkish courts feel obliged to at least consider how the proceedings developed, to ensure that the judgment was fairly given. There have been no significant misinterpretations of this principle by Turkish courts.

Formalities

24. What are the documentary requirements for enforcement?

Documentary requirements

The documentary requirements for enforcement of foreign judgments are regulated under Articles 52 and 53 of the Turkish International Private and Procedural Code. Accordingly, the application for a declaration of enforceability of a judgment must be in the form of a petition in writing to the court. The documents that must be enclosed with the petition are:

  • The legalised original of the foreign judgment or the legalised copy of the foreign judgment authenticated by the court, together with its certified translation.

  • The legalised document indicating that the judgment is final and binding, together with its certified translation.

Authentication

The required documents must be authenticated (see above, Documentary requirements). They must be certified either by the Turkish consulate or, where the HCCH Convention on the Conflicts of Laws Relating to the Form of Testamentary Dispositions 1961 (Hague Testamentary Dispositions Convention) applies, by an Apostille.

 
25. Is it required to translate the judgments into the language of the state where enforcement is requested?

Translations

All documents in a foreign language must be produced with Turkish translations.

Other languages

No other language other than Turkish is recognised in Turkey.

Certification

The required translations must be made by a sworn translator and then certified by a notary public. If the translations are made in a foreign country, certification by the Turkish consulate is necessary.

 
26. What is the format of the application for a declaration of enforceability?

The format of the application for a declaration of enforceability is a petition.

 
27. What information must be included in the application regarding the judgment, the claim as awarded in the judgment, the facts and legal grounds of the case, and that the judgment is no longer appealable?

Judgment

The application for a declaration of enforceability must include the following information:

  • The names, surnames and addresses of the plaintiff and defendant and their legal representatives and attorneys, if any.

  • The details of the court that rendered the judgment and the date, file number and the summary of the judgment.

Claim as awarded

The application must contain information regarding claims as awarded, as well as the remedy sought before the enforcing court. For a partial enforcement request, the request must state which part of the judgment is requested to be enforced.

Facts and legal grounds

Facts and legal grounds are not required to be included in the application.

Appeals

The plaintiff must provide the court with a relevant document showing that the foreign judgment has become final and binding.

 
28. Is it required to convert the value of the judgment into the local currency?

It is not required to convert the value of the judgment/award/deed into the local currency. The plaintiff can claim in foreign currency or in the local currency as at the date of the due date or actual payment date (section 99, Turkish Code of Obligations).

 

Proposals for reform

29. Are any changes to the law currently under consideration or being proposed?

There are currently no proposals for reform.

 

Online resources

Mevzuat

W www.mevzuat.gov.tr

Description. Official website of the Turkish Government containing regularly updated legislation in the Turkish language.

Ispramed

W www.ispramed.it/root/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ippl_turkey.pdf

Description. Unofficial website, with an English translation of the Turkish International Private and Procedural Code.



Contributor profiles

Feyzi Erçin, Founding Partner

Erçin Bilgin Bektaşoğlu Law Firm

T +90 212 297 4101
F +90 212 297 4202
E feyzi.ercin@ebb-law.com
W www.ebb-law.com

Professional qualifications. Istanbul, Turkey, Lawyer, 1995

Areas of practice. Aviation; shipping; insurance; litigation.

Recent transactions

  • Handling two of three major aviation losses in Turkey; Turkish Airlines' total loss in 2003, as well as the Atlasjet total loss in 2007, both on behalf of British and American (re)insurers.
  • Advising (re)insurers on coverage and litigation of aviation matters.
  • Acting for various UK and Scandinavian P&I Clubs in admiralty matters.
  • Having experience on cargo claims, bill of lading and charter-party disputes, providing legal opinions to foreign litigations.
  • Advising a local underwriter on their first major D&O liability coverage.
  • Handling a major Turkish arbitration for a large Austrian energy corporation.

Languages. Turkish, English

Professional associations/memberships. Member, Istanbul Bar Association, 1999; member, Istanbul Maritime Law Association, 1997.

Sevgi Aydost, Associate Lawyer

Erçin Bilgin Bektaşoğlu Law Firm

T +90 212 297 4101
F +90 212 297 4202
E sevgi.aydost@ebb-law.com
W www.ebb-law.com

Professional qualifications. Istanbul, Turkey, Lawyer, 2015

Languages. Turkish, English


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