Electricity Regulation in Singapore: overview

A Q&A guide to electricity regulation in Singapore.

The Q&A gives a high level overview of the domestic electricity market, including domestic electricity companies, electricity generation and renewable energy, transmission, distribution, supply and tax issues. It covers the regulatory structure; foreign ownership; import of electricity; authorisation and operating requirements; trading between generators and suppliers; rates and conditions of sale and proposals for reform.

To compare answers across multiple jurisdictions, visit the energy and natural resources Electricity regulation Country Q&A tool.

This Q&A is part of the global guide to energy and natural resources. For a full list of content visit www.practicallaw.com/energy-guide.

Kelvin Wong and Tan Wee Meng, Allen & Gledhill LLP
Contents

Overview

Electricity market

1. What is the role of the electricity market in your jurisdiction?

Overview

The electricity industry in Singapore can be divided into the following principal businesses:

  • Generation: the production of electricity at electricity generation plants using fossil fuels and other sources of energy.

  • Transmission: the transfer of electricity from generation plants either to a distribution network or directly to large industrial electricity consumers using a network of high-voltage power cables.

  • Distribution: the delivery of electricity to homes and businesses using a network of high-voltage and low-voltage power cables.

  • Retailing: the purchase of electricity by, and its sale to, individual electricity consumers.

  • The provision of various services and activities relating to the electricity industry, including market support services, and the operation of and trading in the wholesale electricity market.

Recent trends

See Questions 7 and 24.

Regulatory structure

2. What is the regulatory framework for the electricity sector?

Regulatory framework

The main legislation governing the electricity sector in Singapore is the Electricity Act (Cap. 89A) which aims to:

  • Create a competitive market framework for the electricity industry.

  • Provide safety, technical and economic regulation of the generation, transmission, supply and use of electricity.

Unless an exemption applies, an electricity licence granted is required for, among others (section 9, the Electricity Act):

  • Generation.

  • Transmission.

  • Retail.

  • Import or export.

  • The trade or operation of the wholesale electricity market.

Electricity licences may be granted subject to any conditions imposed by the Energy Market Authority of Singapore (EMA), and may include any restriction or condition required by the EMA or specified under the Electricity Act. The Energy Market Authority of Singapore Act (Cap. 92B) establishes the EMA, the independent regulator overseeing the gas and electricity industries.

Market participants must comply with the market rules made under Section 46 of the Electricity Act (which are contractually binding on market participants) and codes of practice issued or approved under Section 16.

Regulatory authorities

The EMA's functions and duties include the:

  • Protecting the interests of consumers on prices and other supply terms.

  • Ensuring the reliability of the supply.

The National Environment Agency (NEA) was established under the National Environment Agency Act 2002 (Act 4 of 2002). Its functions and duties include:

  • Promoting energy efficiency.

  • Using clean energy, clean technologies and efficient pollution control technologies.

  • Waste recycling.

See box The regulatory authorities.

 

Electricity companies

Main companies

3. What are the main companies involved in electricity generation, transmission, distribution and supply?

Generation

According to the Energy Market Authority, the following 15 entities have been granted licences to generate electricity in Singapore:

  • YTL PowerSeraya Pte Ltd.

  • SembCorp Cogen Pte Ltd.

  • PacificLight Power Pte Ltd.

  • Keppel Merlimau Cogen Pte Ltd.

  • Tuas Power Generation Pte Ltd.

  • Shell Eastern Petroleum Pte Ltd.

  • Senoko Waste-To-Energy Pte Ltd.

  • Senoko Energy Pte Ltd.

  • ExxonMobil Asia Pacific Pte Ltd.

  • Keppel Seghers Tuas Waste-to-Energy Plant Pte Ltd.

  • Tuaspring Pte Ltd.

  • TP Utilities Pte Ltd.

  • Singapore Refining Company Pte Ltd.

  • TuasOne Pte Ltd.

  • National Environment Agency.

Of these, six (Senoko Energy, YTL PowerSeraya, Tuas Power Generation, SembCorp Cogen, Keppel Merlimau Cogen and PacificLight Power) accounted for 90.5% of the total licensed generation capacity in Singapore in 2015.

Transmission and distribution

There is one transmission licensee, SP PowerAssets Ltd (SPPA), which currently owns and maintains the transmission system in Singapore.

The transmission system comprises a high voltage network (the transmission network) and a low voltage network (the distribution network).

SPPA has appointed SP PowerGrid Ltd as its agent to manage its business including the management and operation of the transmission network and distribution network.

Supply

There are two categories of consumers under the Electricity Act classed according to their annual electricity usage:

  • Contestable.

  • Non-contestable.

Contestable consumers can buy electricity from a retail electricity licensee, directly from the wholesale market or indirectly from the wholesale market through the market service licensee (MSSL).

Non-contestable consumers must procure their supply of electricity from the MSSL. SP Services Ltd is currently licensed under section 9 of the Electricity Act as the sole MSSL and is responsible for supplying electricity to non-contestable consumers.

Retail electricity licensees may purchase electricity from the wholesale market and sell electricity to contestable consumers. The main electricity retail licensees are:

  • Seraya Energy Pte Ltd.

  • Senoko Energy Supply Pte Ltd.

  • Tuas Power Supply Pte Ltd.

  • SembCorp Power Pte Ltd.

  • Keppel Electric Pte Ltd.

Unbundling requirements

The Electricity Act stipulates that

  • No transmission licensee, transmission agent licensee or market support services licensee can be granted an electricity licence to carry out any activity other than the:

    • transmission of electricity;

    • transmitting of electricity for or on behalf of a transmission licensee;

    • provision of market support services, respectively.

  • No electricity licensee which is authorised by its licence to operate any wholesale electricity market can be granted an electricity licence to carry out any activity other than the operation of that market.

Foreign ownership

4. Are there any restrictions concerning the foreign ownership of electricity companies or assets?

Designated electricity licensees, designated entities and the trustee-manager of a designated business trust must give notice to the Energy Market Authority (EMA) if any entity acquires an equity interest in the licensee, entity or business trust that would result in them holding between 5% but less than 12% of the total equity interest in that licensee, entity or business trust.

Prior approval by the EMA is required for anyone who (whether alone or together with associates) seeks to:

  • Be an indirect controller of a designated licensee, designated entity or designated business trust.

  • Hold 12% or more or 30% or more of the total equity interest in a designated licensee, designated entity or designated business trust.

  • Control 12% or more or 30% or more of the voting power in a designated licensee, designated entity or designated business trust.

  • Acquire as a going concern the business of a designated licensee conducted under its licence or the business which relates to a designated entity's transmission system or any part thereof

Import of electricity

5. To what extent is electricity imported?

Singapore does not currently import electricity. The Energy Market Authority (EMA) published a consultation paper in December 2011 to explore the feasibility of importing electricity (although no consequent determination paper was published). In 2012, the EMA stated that it was actively looking at the possibility of importing electricity and would consider importing it if there were advantages to Singapore consumers.

 

Electricity generation and renewable energy

Sources of electricity generation

6. What are the main sources of electricity generation?

Fossil fuels

Singapore uses primarily natural gas for the generation of electricity. In 2015, natural gas accounted for approximately 95% of electricity generation, petroleum products accounted for approximately 0.7%, coal accounted for approximately 1.2% and other sources amounting for approximately 2.9%.

Nuclear fission

Nuclear fission is not a source of electricity generation in Singapore.

Renewable energy

The Energy Market Authority (EMA) has observed that there are limited renewable energy options in Singapore (with the exception of solar energy). Singapore has no hydro resources, low wind speeds and a low mean tidal range. Additionally, geothermal energy is not economically viable.

However, the EMA has stated that solar energy offers the greatest deployment potential in Singapore, due to Singapore’s geographical location.

 
7. Are there any government policies, targets or incentives in place to encourage the use of renewable or low carbon energy?

Government policies/incentives

Renewable Energy Integration Demonstrator - Singapore. In 2014, the Economic Development Board of Singapore (EDB) announced the Renewable Energy Integration Demonstrator – Singapore (REIDS) initiative, Southeast Asia’s first major renewable energy integration demonstration microgrid testbed.

According to the EDB, REIDS will provide a platform for researchers and industry to develop, test and demonstrate the integration of solar, wind, tidal-current, diesel, storage and power-to-gas technologies on Semakau Landfill, Singapore’s only landfill, located on an offshore island. Companies will be able to develop control systems to integrate and manage multiple microgrids with varying loads and renewable energy sources.

SolarNova. In an effort to increase solar deployment in Singapore and fulfil the government’s plans to raise the adoption of solar power (see Question 6), the EDB launched SolarNova in 2014, a government-led programme that aims to accelerate solar deployment in Singapore through promoting and aggregating solar demand across government agencies. According to the EDB:

  • SolarNova will use a solar leasing business model where a private sector company will install, own and operate the solar systems and sell electricity to government agencies through a long-term power purchase agreement.

  • Under SolarNova, the Housing and Development Board of Singapore (the public housing agency in Singapore which manages housing for more than 80% of the population) will serve as the government's central procurement agency and conducts solar tenders on behalf of all other government agencies assisted by the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore. This aggregation of demand is intended to enable agencies with smaller rooftop spaces or a smaller demand for solar energy to benefit from economies of scale and better pricing from bulk tenders.

  • SolarNova is also intended to deepen the capabilities of Singapore-based solar enterprises and encourage private sector adoption of solar energy.

Intermittent Generation Sources. To enhance the deployment of solar energy, the Energy Market Authority (EMA) issued a Final Determination Paper on 1 July 2014, making several enhancements to the market and regulatory framework for intermittent generation sources (IGS) (primarily solar energy). Some of the key enhancements include:

  • Raising the current intermittent generation threshold for solar energy (that is, the amount of IGS the system can accommodate based on the existing amount of reserves) from 350 MWac to 600 MWac.

  • Streamlining market registration and settlement procedures. The EMA has simplified the process for IGS to be connected to the grid (for example, the commissioning process for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations has been reduced from 27 working days to seven working days) and made it easier for IGS to receive payments when they export excess electricity into the grid.

Renewable energy targets

In 2014, the Singapore government announced its commitment to raise the adoption of solar power to 350 MWp by 2020, which would constitute approximately 5% of the projected 2020 peak electricity demand. This is a non-legally binding target.

See box, Renewable energy sources.

 
8. What are the main obstacles to the development of renewable energy?

See Question 6.

Regarding the development of solar energy, two main obstacles have been identified by the Energy Market Authority:

  • Singapore’s small geographical size, high population density and land scarcity limit the amount of available space to deploy solar energy.

  • Any power system with significant penetration of solar energy for electricity generation must manage intermittency appropriately, so as not to compromise grid stability. As Singapore does not import any of its electricity, it is highly reliant on a reliable electricity generation system that has low levels of intermittency.

 
9. Are there any plans to build new nuclear power stations?

There have been no definitive plans announced by the Energy Market Authority.

In 2012, the government published the conclusions of a nuclear energy pre-feasibility study. The conclusion was that the currently available nuclear energy technologies were not yet suitable for Singapore. Singapore needed to strengthen its capabilities to assess the implications of evolving nuclear energy technologies and regional nuclear energy developments.

In 2014, the National Research Foundation announced the establishment of the Nuclear Safety Research and Education Programme, which will receive funding of SG$63 million over five years.

Authorisation and operating requirements

10. What are the authorisation requirements to construct electricity generation plants?

An entity that is authorised by an electricity licence to generate electricity has the right to install an electrical plant and execute any work necessary for or incidental to the installation (section 31, Electricity Act).

 
11. Are there any requirements to ensure new power stations are ready for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, or requiring a plant to retrofit CCS technology once this is ready?

There are no such legislative requirements in place.

 
12. What are the authorisation and main ongoing requirements to operate electricity generation plants?

Authorisation

An electricity licence granted under section 9 of the Electricity Act is required for the generation of electricity, unless certain exemptions apply (for example, the generating plant has a nameplate capacity of less than 10MV and is not connected to the transmission system).

In determining whether to grant or extend an electricity licence, the Energy Market Authority (EMA) must consider the applicant's:

  • Ability to finance the activity.

  • Experience in carrying on the activity.

  • Ability to perform the duties that would be imposed on that person under the Electricity Act and the electricity licence, if granted.

Ongoing requirements

Compliance with any restrictions or conditions in the electricity licence is required, as well as with the statutory duties to which it is subject to under the Electricity Act. Some of the key conditions and duties are:

  • Generally, a generation licensee must enter into regulatory agreements on specified terms, including:

    • a connection agreement with the SP PowerAssets Ltd (SPPA) for connection of its generating station to the transmission system;

    • an agreement with the power system operator for the purposes of creating a contractual relationship between the power system operator and the licensee as a market participant; and

    • an agreement with the market service licensee (MSSL) for the provision of metering services.

  • A generation licensee must develop and maintain a reliable, efficient, co-ordinated and economical system of electricity generation in accordance with the market rules and applicable codes of practice and other standards of performance issued or approved by the EMA (section 20, Electricity Act).

 
13. What requirements are there concerning connection of generation to the transmission grid?

An applicant wishing to connect to the transmission grid must first submit the electricity connection application for the proposed generation plant to the SP PowerAssets Ltd (SPPA) (see Question 3), which will decide on the electricity connection scheme and advise the applicant accordingly. Certain details on the proposed generation plant must be submitted with the application form (as specified in Appendix C of the Transmission Code).

The applicant must also enter into a connection agreement with SPPA to connect its generating station to the transmission system.

 

Electricity transmission

Authorisation and operating requirements

14. What are the authorisation requirements to construct electricity transmission networks?

The SP PowerAssets Ltd (SPPA) has the right to install any electrical line and execute any work requisite for or incidental to the installation (section 31, Electricity Act) (see Question 10).

 
15. What are the authorisation and main ongoing requirements to operate electricity transmission networks?

Authorisation

An electricity licence granted under section 9 of the Electricity Act is required for the transmission of electricity.

In determining whether to grant or extend an electricity licence, the Energy Market Authority (EMA) must consider the applicant's:

  • Ability to finance the activity.

  • Experience in carrying on the activity.

  • Ability to perform the duties which would be imposed on that person under the Electricity Act and the electricity licence, if granted.

Ongoing requirements

Compliance with restrictions or conditions in the electricity licence is required, in addition to the statutory duties under the Electricity Act. Some of the key conditions and duties are:

  • The SP PowerAssets Ltd (SPPA) must not compete in the energy market, whether as a generator, retailer or trader (either directly or indirectly by ownership of companies engaged in such activities) due to the risk of a conflict of interest.

  • SPPA may be required to carry out work related to the development of a transmission system or the supply of electricity to any premises.

  • SPPA must comply with the Transmission Code, which sets out minimum conditions that it must meet in carrying out its obligations as the provider of transmission services.

  • Section 20 of the Electricity Act requires SPPA to:

    • develop and maintain a reliable, efficient, co-ordinated and economical transmission system in accordance with applicable codes of practice and other standards of performance issued or approved by the EMA;

    • facilitate competition in the generation and sale of electricity by making its transmission system available to those authorised to generate, trade or retail electricity or to provide market support services on terms which neither prevent nor restrict such competition; and

    • provide non-discriminatory access to its transmission system for the supply and use of electricity in accordance with the Electricity Act, its transmission licence and the market rules.

Transmission charges

16. How are the charges and conditions for the transmission of electricity regulated?

Charges for transmission services are regulated by the Energy Market Authority under the terms of the electricity licence of the SP PowerAssets Ltd (SPPA).

The transmission licensee must publish statements which must provide certain details setting out the basis on which the fees and charges for transmission services are levied.

 

Electricity distribution

Authorisation and operating requirements

17. What are the authorisation requirements to construct electricity distribution systems?

See Question 14.

The SP PowerAssets Ltd (SPPA) deals with both electricity transmission and distribution.

 
18. What are the authorisation and the main ongoing requirements to operate electricity distribution systems?

The regime for transmission networks also applies to distribution systems (see Question 15).

Distribution charges

19. How are the charges and conditions for the distribution of electricity regulated?

The regulation of transmission charges are also applicable to distribution charges (see Question 16).

 

Electricity supply

Authorisation and operating requirements

20. What are the authorisation and the main ongoing requirements to supply electricity to end consumers?

Authorisation

An electricity licence granted under section 9 of the Electricity Act is required for the retail of electricity, unless an exemption applies.

In determining whether to grant or extend an electricity licence, the Energy Market Authority (EMA) must consider the applicant's:

  • Ability to finance the activity.

  • Experience in carrying on the activity.

  • Ability to perform the duties which would be imposed on that person under the Electricity Act and the electricity licence, if granted.

A further licensing requirement applies to market participant retailers, who must be registered as a market participant with the Energy Market Company (EMC), the company that operates and administers the wholesale market, in order to purchase electricity directly from the wholesale market. Non-market participant retailers need not register with the EMC, as they purchase electricity indirectly from the wholesale market through the market service licensee (MSSL) (see Question 3, Supply).

Ongoing requirements

See Question 2.

Compliance with restrictions or conditions in the electricity licence will be required, as well as with the statutory duties under the Electricity Act. Some of the key conditions/duties are:

An entity which is authorised by an electricity licence to retail electricity to a contestable consumer (retail electricity licensee) is required to:

  • Enter into regulatory agreements on specified terms, including:

    • a market support services agreement;

    • for market participant retailers, a power system operator to market participant agreement to enforce each party’s rights and obligations under the market rules.

  • Comply with the Code of Conduct for Retail Electricity Licensees, which sets out minimum standards of behaviour that a retail electricity licensee must observe in retailing to consumers.

  • Develop and maintain a reliable, efficient, co-ordinated and economical electricity retail business in accordance with applicable codes of practice and other standards of performance issued or approved by the EMA.

Additionally, the MSSL who is required to procure the supply and sale of electricity to non-contestable consumers must comply with the Regulated Supply Service Code.

Trading between generators and suppliers

21. How is electricity trading (between generators and suppliers) regulated?

Electricity is traded in the National Electricity Market of Singapore (NEMS), established under the Electricity Act.

The principle legislation governing the NEMS is the Electricity Act. In addition, the rights and obligations of the participants in the wholesale and retail markets are set out in the market rules and in the electricity licences and codes of practice issued by the Energy Market Authority.

Electricity price and conditions of sale

22. How is the price for electricity and conditions of sale regulated at the consumer and wholesale level?

The National Electricity Market of Singapore (NEMS) consists of a retail and wholesale market.

Consumer

According to the Energy Market Authority (EMA), retail competition in Singapore was introduced progressively. Large-volume electricity consumers became contestable first and the consumption volume threshold for contestability has been lowered over time (see Question 3, Supply). This has allowed further opening of the market to consumers to occur smoothly without undue technical demands being placed on the retail companies, while allowing smaller consumers the benefit of additional time to learn about and understand their options in the new retail market.

Contestable consumers may purchase electricity from:

  • A retail electricity licensee under a bilateral contract.

  • The market service licensee (MSSL).

  • Directly through the NEMS at the wholesale spot rate.

The aim of contestability is to enable consumers to exercise choice and therefore benefit from competition.

Wholesale

The wholesale market consists of a ''real-time'' market or ''spot'' market for energy, regulation and reserve, which is administered by the Energy Market Company, and a ''procurement market'' for ancillary services required to maintain the secure operation of the power system.

The spot market uses a form of auction pricing to settle transactions in the market. At every half-hour, the spot market determines the:

  • Quantity that each electricity generation facility is to produce.

  • Reserve and regulation capacity to be maintained by each electricity generation facility.

  • Corresponding wholesale spot market price for electricity.

The quantities and prices in the wholesale market are based on price-quantity offers made by generation licensees on a half-hourly basis and demand forecasts prepared by the power system operator. The overall least-cost dispatch schedule and market prices are determined half-hourly. The price offered in the market for the most expensive generation needed to meet the forecast demand in each half hour period sets the system marginal price.

In addition to trading in the spot market, the EMA has made mandatory the entry into vesting contracts for certain generation licensees (that is, Senoko Energy, YTL PowerSeraya and Tuas Power Generation) a condition of their electricity licences.

Vesting contracts are financial contracts between electricity generation licensees and SP Services. These contracts commit such licensees to sell specified quantities of electricity for various periods at prices stipulated by the EMA. Such contracts remove the incentives for power generation companies to withhold generation capacity in order to increase spot prices in the wholesale electricity market. In essence, vesting contracts are intended to curb the market power of large players in the wholesale market in order to promote market competition and efficiency for the benefit of consumers (see Question 24).

The EMA reviews the vesting contract level and parameters used to set the vesting price once every two years.

 

Tax issues

23. What are the main tax issues arising on electricity generation, distribution, transmission and supply?

Singapore does not have a carbon tax. There are no specific taxes levied on electricity generation, distribution, transmission and supply, but the usual taxes such as goods and services tax (GST), levied at 7% under the Goods and Services Tax Act (Cap. 117A) will apply.

A guide on the GST treatment of the transactions in the National Electricity Market of Singapore (NEMS) can be found at the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore’s website at https://www.iras.gov.sg/irashome/GST/GST-registered-businesses/Specific-business-sectors/Energy.

 

Reform

24. What reform proposals are there for the regulation of the electricity sector?

Vesting contracts

The Energy Market Authority (EMA) recently published a review (September 2016) on the vesting contract regime. According to the EMA, although the vesting contract regime has been effective in mitigating the market power of large players in the wholesale market, the regime has been seen to be relatively intrusive and introduces concerns on long term resource adequacy. For example, the biannual review of the vesting contract level reduces certainty and predictability on the vesting contract level for the generation companies.

To address the shortcomings of the regime, the EMA has decided to move towards an alternative regime to mitigate the market power of large players in the wholesale market.

Under the alternative regime, the following measures will be implemented:

  • Impose a capacity market share cap of 25% on each generation licensee, except for the three large licensees (Senoko Energy, YTL PowerSeraya and Tuas Power Generation). For these three, the EMA will impose the higher of either the 25% capacity market share cap or their respective megawatt (MW) licensed capacity cap, until the expiry date of their current generation licence. Beyond these expiry dates, their respective MW licensed capacity cap will be terminated and the 25% generation capacity market share cap will apply.

  • Prudently hedge unvested market service licensee (MSSL) load, which could be via a combination of futures products, tenders and bilateral trades.

  • Gradually phase out vesting contracts by maintaining levels at 25% (of total demand) from 1 January 2017 to 30 June 2018, and reducing the same to 22.5% and 20% for the second half of 2018 and first half of 2019 respectively. During the transition period, the current vesting contract allocation method and period weighting factors for vesting contract levels will be retained.

Power generation investments

In July 2016, the EMA published a determination paper on the implementation of several initiatives to improve the regulatory environment for power generation plantings and to facilitate future power generation investments in Singapore. Two of the key initiatives are:

  • Requiring generation licensees to inform the EMA of their indicative generation plans with a four-year notice period.

  • Setting out a land allocation framework with a two-stage process to allocate safeguarded utility land to investors for new generation assets. Under this framework, the EMA will periodically release land which has been safeguarded and make available this land for power generation planting.

 

The regulatory authorities

Energy Market Authority of Singapore

Address. 991G Alexandra Road, #01-29
Singapore
119975
T +65 6835 8000
F +65 6835 8020
E ema_enquiry@ema.gov.sg
W

Main responsibilities. To operate as an independent regulator overseeing, among others, the gas and electricity industries.



Online resources

W http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/home.w3p ( www.practicallaw.com/7-543-9365)

Description. This is the official Singapore Government website for online publication of legislation. This service is provided by the Legislation Division of the Attorney-General's Chambers.



Contributor profiles

Kelvin Wong, Partner

Allen & Gledhill LLP

T +65 6890 7644
F +65 6302 3048
E kelvin.wong@allenandgledhill.com
W www.allenandgledhill.com

Professional qualifications. Singapore Bar (1996), Advocate and Solicitor; Bar of England and Wales, Middle Temple (1995), Barrister-at-Law

Areas of practice. Construction and engineering; corporate and commercial; employment; energy; infrastructure and projects.

Languages. English

Professional associations/memberships. Associate Member, Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, England; Independent Director, AETOS Holdings Pte. Ltd; Independent Director, National Volunteer & Philanthropy Centre; Director, National Council of Social Service

Publications

  • Benchmarking Public-Private Partnerships Procurement 2017 Indicator, World Bank, author.

  • The International Comparative Legal Guide to Public Procurement 2016 (Singapore Chapter), Global Legal Group, author.

  • Water Law Committee Newsletter (2016, 2015), International Bar Association, editor.

  • Expert Guide: Energy & Natural Resources (2015), LNG in Singapore: The next stage, Corporate LiveWire.

Tan Wee Meng, Partner

Allen & Gledhill LLP

T +65 6890 7518
F +65 6302 3042
E tan.weemeng@allenandgledhill.com
W www.allenandgledhill.com

Professional qualifications. Singapore Bar (1997), Advocate and Solicitor

Areas of practice. Corporate and commercial; energy; infrastructure and projects; technology; media and telecommunications.

Languages. English

Publications

  • Benchmarking Public-Private Partnerships Procurement 2017 Indicator, World Bank, author.

  • The International Comparative Legal Guide to Public Procurement 2016 (Singapore Chapter), Global Legal Group, author.


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