Intentional discrimination against an employee or applicant because of their membership in a protected class ( www.practicallaw.com/5-501-5857) or classes. For example, failure to hire, promote or provide a raise to an employee because of their Irish national origin would be disparate treatment. Disparate treatment is one of the theories of discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ( www.practicallaw.com/0-501-7062) (Title VII). The other is disparate impact ( www.practicallaw.com/1-502-2874) . For more information, see Practice Note, Discrimination: Overview: Theories of Discrimination Liability Under Title VII ( www.practicallaw.com/3-503-3975) .