Digital Business Country Q&A tool

Search the Country Q&A in the Digital Business Global Guide by question and jurisdiction.

Step 1: Check the boxes to select the questions and the jurisdictions for comparison.
Step 2: Click the "submit" button.
Step 3: Scroll down to view answers and check law stated dates for each jurisdiction.

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Regulatory overview

1. What are the relevant regulations for doing business online?
2. What regulatory bodies are responsible for passing legislation in this area?

Setting up a business online

3. What are the common steps a company must take to set up an existing/new business online?
4. What are the relevant parties that an online business can expect to contract with?
5. What are the procedures for developing and distributing an app?

Running a business online

Electronic contracts

6. Is it possible to form a contract electronically? If so, what are the requirements for electronic contract formation?
7. What laws govern contracting on the internet?
8. Are there any limitations in relation to electronic contracts?
9. Are there any data retention requirements in relation to the formation of electronic contracts?
10. Are there any trusted site accreditations available?
11. What remedies are available for breach of an electronic contract?


12. Does the law recognise e-signatures?
13. Are there any limitations on the use of e-signatures?

Implications of running a business online

Cyber security/privacy protection/data protection

14. Are there any laws that regulate the collection or use of personal data? To whom do the data protection laws apply?
15. What data is regulated?
16. Are there any limitations on collecting personal data? Are there any specific limitations on storage of personal data in the cloud?

Regulatory framework and bodies

17. Is the use of cookies allowed? If so, what conditions apply to their use that impact system design?
18. What measures must be taken by companies or the internet providers to guarantee the security of internet transactions?


19. Is the use of encryption required or prohibited in any circumstances?
20. Can government bodies access or compel disclosure of personal data in certain circumstances?
21. Are there any regulations in relation to electronic payments?


22. Are there any limitations on linking to a third party website and other practices such as framing, caching, spidering and the use of metatags?

Domain names

23. What regulations are there in relation to licensing of domain names?
24. Do domain names confer any additional rights (in relation to trade marks or passing off) beyond the rights that are vested in domain names?
25. What restrictions apply to the selection of a business name, and what is the procedure for obtaining one?

Jurisdiction and governing law

26. What rules do the courts apply to determine the jurisdiction for internet transactions (or disputes)?
27. What rules do the courts apply to determine the governing law for internet transactions (or disputes)?
28. Are there any ADR/ODR options available to online traders and their customers? What remedies are available from the ADR/ODR methods?


29. What are the relevant rules on advertising goods/services online/via social media?
30. Are there any types of services or products that are specifically regulated when advertised/sold online (for example, financial services or medications)? 
31. Are there any rules or limitations in relation to text messages/spam emails?
32. Are there any language requirements in your jurisdiction for a website that targets your particular jurisdiction or whose target market includes your jurisdiction?


33. Are sales concluded online subject to taxation?
34. Where and when must online companies register for VAT and other taxes? Which country's VAT rate will apply?

Protecting an online business

Liability for content online

35. What laws govern liability for website content?
36. What legal information must a website operator provide?
37. Who is liable for the content a website displays (including mistakes)?
38. Can an internet service provider (ISP) shut down a website, remove content, or disable linking due to the website's content and without permission?


39. How should an online business be insured?


40. Are there any proposals to reform digital business law in your jurisdiction?
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